One of the simplest splashing scenarios results from the impact of a single drop on a deep pool. The traditional understanding of this process is that the impact generates an axisymmetric sheet-like jet that later breaks up into secondary droplets. Recently it was shown that even this simplest of scenarios is more complicated than expected because multiple jets can be generated from a single impact event and there are transitions in the multiplicity of jets as the experimental parameters are varied. Here, we use experiments and numerical simulations of a single drop impacting on a deep pool to examine the transition from impacts that produce a single jet to those that produce two jets. Using high-speed X-ray imaging methods we show that vortex separation within the drop leads to the formation of a second jet long after the formation of the ejecta sheet. Using numerical simulations we develop a phase diagram for this transition and show that the capillary number is the most appropriate order parameter for the transition.
Agbaglah, G., Thoraval, M-J., Thoroddsen, S. T., Zhang, L. V., Fezzaa, K., & Deegan, R. D. (2015). Drop impact into a deep pool: vortex shedding and jet formation. Journal of fluid mechanics, 764, R1-R12. https://doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2014.723