Droplet ejection in laser-induced forward transfer: mechanism for droplet fragmentation

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Abstract

Laser-induced forward transfer is a direct-write method suitable for precision printing of various materials. However, occasional defects (i.e. contamination of the receiver due to the impact of multiple small droplets instead of a single droplet) hamper a widespread application of this method. As the ejection mechanism has not been visualized in detail, the cause of these defects is not understood as yet. Therefore, this article presents an experimental study on the ejection process mechanisms of copper-based picosecond laser-induced forward transfer. Images were obtained using bright field illumination by a 6 ns pulsed laser and a 50× long-distance microscope objective. For laser fluences just above the transfer-threshold, the release of a single droplet is frequently (97%) observed. The typical droplet radius in these cases is estimated to be 3 μm. However, images acquired at a later time in time show multiple droplets in the majority (86%) of the observations. The droplet fragments usually follow the main droplet. Two mechanisms to explain these fragments are proposed: i) break-up of “threads” between the donor layer and the ejected droplet; ii) contraction of the ejected droplet. As the phase of the ejected copper is not identified completely, the exact mechanism is not yet known and will be subject of further research.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of LAMP2013 - the 6th International congress on Laser Advanced Materials Processing
Place of PublicationNiigata, Japan
PublisherNature Publishing Group
Pages1-5
Publication statusPublished - 23 Jul 2013

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PublisherNature Publishing Group

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ejection
fragmentation
lasers
fragments
copper
threads
defects
printing
contraction
pulsed lasers
fluence
contamination
receivers
illumination
microscopes
radii
thresholds
causes

Keywords

  • METIS-297981
  • IR-87363

Cite this

Pohl, R., Visser, C. W., Römer, G. R. B. E., Sun, C., Huis in 't Veld, B., & Lohse, D. (2013). Droplet ejection in laser-induced forward transfer: mechanism for droplet fragmentation. In Proceedings of LAMP2013 - the 6th International congress on Laser Advanced Materials Processing (pp. 1-5). Niigata, Japan: Nature Publishing Group.
Pohl, Ralph ; Visser, C.W. ; Römer, Gerardus Richardus, Bernardus, Engelina ; Sun, Chao ; Huis in 't Veld, Bert ; Lohse, Detlef. / Droplet ejection in laser-induced forward transfer: mechanism for droplet fragmentation. Proceedings of LAMP2013 - the 6th International congress on Laser Advanced Materials Processing. Niigata, Japan : Nature Publishing Group, 2013. pp. 1-5
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title = "Droplet ejection in laser-induced forward transfer: mechanism for droplet fragmentation",
abstract = "Laser-induced forward transfer is a direct-write method suitable for precision printing of various materials. However, occasional defects (i.e. contamination of the receiver due to the impact of multiple small droplets instead of a single droplet) hamper a widespread application of this method. As the ejection mechanism has not been visualized in detail, the cause of these defects is not understood as yet. Therefore, this article presents an experimental study on the ejection process mechanisms of copper-based picosecond laser-induced forward transfer. Images were obtained using bright field illumination by a 6 ns pulsed laser and a 50× long-distance microscope objective. For laser fluences just above the transfer-threshold, the release of a single droplet is frequently (97{\%}) observed. The typical droplet radius in these cases is estimated to be 3 μm. However, images acquired at a later time in time show multiple droplets in the majority (86{\%}) of the observations. The droplet fragments usually follow the main droplet. Two mechanisms to explain these fragments are proposed: i) break-up of “threads” between the donor layer and the ejected droplet; ii) contraction of the ejected droplet. As the phase of the ejected copper is not identified completely, the exact mechanism is not yet known and will be subject of further research.",
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Pohl, R, Visser, CW, Römer, GRBE, Sun, C, Huis in 't Veld, B & Lohse, D 2013, Droplet ejection in laser-induced forward transfer: mechanism for droplet fragmentation. in Proceedings of LAMP2013 - the 6th International congress on Laser Advanced Materials Processing. Nature Publishing Group, Niigata, Japan, pp. 1-5.

Droplet ejection in laser-induced forward transfer: mechanism for droplet fragmentation. / Pohl, Ralph; Visser, C.W.; Römer, Gerardus Richardus, Bernardus, Engelina; Sun, Chao; Huis in 't Veld, Bert; Lohse, Detlef.

Proceedings of LAMP2013 - the 6th International congress on Laser Advanced Materials Processing. Niigata, Japan : Nature Publishing Group, 2013. p. 1-5.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademic

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AU - Huis in 't Veld, Bert

AU - Lohse, Detlef

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Y1 - 2013/7/23

N2 - Laser-induced forward transfer is a direct-write method suitable for precision printing of various materials. However, occasional defects (i.e. contamination of the receiver due to the impact of multiple small droplets instead of a single droplet) hamper a widespread application of this method. As the ejection mechanism has not been visualized in detail, the cause of these defects is not understood as yet. Therefore, this article presents an experimental study on the ejection process mechanisms of copper-based picosecond laser-induced forward transfer. Images were obtained using bright field illumination by a 6 ns pulsed laser and a 50× long-distance microscope objective. For laser fluences just above the transfer-threshold, the release of a single droplet is frequently (97%) observed. The typical droplet radius in these cases is estimated to be 3 μm. However, images acquired at a later time in time show multiple droplets in the majority (86%) of the observations. The droplet fragments usually follow the main droplet. Two mechanisms to explain these fragments are proposed: i) break-up of “threads” between the donor layer and the ejected droplet; ii) contraction of the ejected droplet. As the phase of the ejected copper is not identified completely, the exact mechanism is not yet known and will be subject of further research.

AB - Laser-induced forward transfer is a direct-write method suitable for precision printing of various materials. However, occasional defects (i.e. contamination of the receiver due to the impact of multiple small droplets instead of a single droplet) hamper a widespread application of this method. As the ejection mechanism has not been visualized in detail, the cause of these defects is not understood as yet. Therefore, this article presents an experimental study on the ejection process mechanisms of copper-based picosecond laser-induced forward transfer. Images were obtained using bright field illumination by a 6 ns pulsed laser and a 50× long-distance microscope objective. For laser fluences just above the transfer-threshold, the release of a single droplet is frequently (97%) observed. The typical droplet radius in these cases is estimated to be 3 μm. However, images acquired at a later time in time show multiple droplets in the majority (86%) of the observations. The droplet fragments usually follow the main droplet. Two mechanisms to explain these fragments are proposed: i) break-up of “threads” between the donor layer and the ejected droplet; ii) contraction of the ejected droplet. As the phase of the ejected copper is not identified completely, the exact mechanism is not yet known and will be subject of further research.

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Pohl R, Visser CW, Römer GRBE, Sun C, Huis in 't Veld B, Lohse D. Droplet ejection in laser-induced forward transfer: mechanism for droplet fragmentation. In Proceedings of LAMP2013 - the 6th International congress on Laser Advanced Materials Processing. Niigata, Japan: Nature Publishing Group. 2013. p. 1-5