Drying process in the formation of sol-gel derived TiO2 ceramic membrane

Krishnankutty-Nair P. Kumar, V.T. Zaspalis, K. Keizer, A.J. Burggraaf

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)
148 Downloads (Pure)


Accurate drying data for thin titania gel layers dried at 40°C and 20% relative humidity (RH) are given. The drying rate versus free moisture content diagram should show three regions as predicted by the classical drying theory. They are the constant rate period, the first falling rate period and the second falling rate period. The second falling rate period was not observed in the present case, because at 40°C and 20% RH the equilibrium moisture content will be enough to provide a continuous fluid network in the gel. The total drying time in the falling rate period increases with layer thickness. The drying mechanism in the first falling rate period was identified as capillary flow.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)375-381
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of non-crystalline solids
Publication statusPublished - 1993


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