Dual-signal heterodyne lock-in amplification with lasers

W.J. Witteman

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High-sensitivity heterodyne detection with lasers applied to radar and satellite communication is seriously hampered by the large electronic bandwidth due to Doppler shift and frequency instability. These drawbacks can be circumvented by dual-signal heterodyne detection. The system consists of mixing the local oscillator with two signal beams and the lock-in amplification at the beat frequency of the two intermediate frequencies. The signal modulation is demodulated by the lock-in amplification. A detailed analysis of the accompanying noise is given. The derived NEP is much smaller than that of a conventional heterodyne system. As examples, the system is applied to radar and space communication.
Original languageUndefined
Pages (from-to)202-210
JournalLaser physics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2006


  • IR-85926

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