Rapid acid-base titrations can be performed at the surface of a noble-metal electrode with coulometrically generated ions. An ISFET is used as an indicator electrode to detect the equivalence point in the resulting titration curve. The time needed to reach the equivalence point is typically 0.5 to 10 s for acid/base concentrations ranging from 0.5 × 10−3 to 20 × 10−3 mol l−1. A model is presented describing the concentration profiles which appear during the coulometric generation of ions. The result of this model is in good agreement with corresponding measurements. These measurements are carried out with two different actuator electrodes, of which the processing steps are described.
Olthuis, W., Luo, J., van der Schoot, B. H., Bomer, J. G., & Bergveld, P. (1990). Dynamic behaviour of ISFET-based Sensor-Actuator systems. Sensors and actuators. B: Chemical, 1(1-6), 416-420. https://doi.org/10.1016/0925-4005(90)80241-Q