Dynamic measurement setups for validating piezoelectric energy harvesters in driving conditions

Carmela Mangone*, Wisut Kaewsakul, Andries P.J. van Swaaij, Katarzyna Bandzierz, Michel Klein Gunnewiek, Anke Blume

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Sustainable power supply to flexible electronics is currently of high interest due to the transition to autonomous and self-driving vehicles. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters (PEH) can be used as sustainable energy sources by harvesting the electrical power through the material deformation occurring in a tire. In this work, an analytical setup was developed to experimentally validate the energy harvesters for their use in tires. It was designed to measure the harvested electrical energy under simulated driving conditions. The setup includes a Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) as foundation to simulate the vibrations and dynamic responses occurring in a rolling tire. The dynamic properties and the output voltage from the harvesters were monitored under these sinusoidal conditions. For this, a PEH for tire applications was prepared in a sandwich configuration. It consists of a piezoelectric material, i.e. PolyVinyliDene diFluoride (PVDF) film, inserted in between two layers of electrodes, i.e. elastomers filled with conductive carbon black fillers. The electrical conductivity of elastomeric compounds was measured under dynamic conditions varying dynamic strain, frequencies, and temperatures. Dynamic strain and temperature resulted to be the most significant factors influencing the electrical conductivity of elastomers. Output power from the piezoelectric energy harvester was also measured at varied frequencies and temperatures. Both properties increase considerably the piezoelectric power. This development gives a promising method for analyzing the electro-mechanical properties of conductive and piezoelectric materials and optimizing their performance according to simulated tire-rolling conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number107932
JournalPolymer testing
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2023


  • Conductive elastomer
  • Dynamic mechanical analysis
  • Energy harvester
  • Piezoelectric polymer
  • UT-Gold-D

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