Dysregulation of astrocyte ion homeostasis and its relevance for stroke‐induced brain damage

Michel J.A.M. van Putten, Christoph Fahlke, Karl W. Kafitz, Jeannette Hofmeijer, Christine R. Rose*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of mortality and chronic disability. Either recovery or progression towards irreversible failure of neurons and astrocytes occurs within minutes to days, depending on remaining perfusion levels. Initial damage arises from energy depletion resulting in a failure to maintain homeostasis and ion gradients between extra‐ and intracellular spaces. Astrocytes play a key role in these processes and are thus central players in the dynamics towards recovery or progression of stroke‐induced brain damage. Here, we present a synopsis of the pivotal functions of astrocytes at the tripartite synapse, which form the basis of physiological brain functioning. We summarize the evidence of astrocytic failure and its consequences under ischemic conditions. Special emphasis is put on the homeostasis and stroke‐induced dysregulation of the major monovalent ions, namely Na+, K+, H+, and Cl, and their involvement in maintenance of cellular volume and generation of cerebral edema.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5679
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Volume22
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2021

Keywords

  • Cell swelling
  • Chloride
  • Edema
  • Glutamate transport
  • Penumbra
  • PH
  • Potassium
  • Sodium
  • Stroke core

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