Ectopic bone formation in bone marrow stem cell seeded calcium phosphate scaffolds as compared to autograft and (cell seeded) allograft

J.O. Eniwumide, Huipin Yuan, S.H. Cartmell, G.J. Meijer, Joost Dick de Bruijn

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Improvements to current therapeutic strategies are needed for the treatment of skeletal defects. Bone tissue engineering offers potential advantages to these strategies. In this study, ectopic bone formation in a range of scaffolds was assessed. Vital autograft and devitalised allograft served as controls and the experimental groups comprised autologous bone marrow derived stem cell seeded allograft, biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP), respectively. All implants were implanted in the back muscle of adult Dutch milk goats for 12 weeks. Micro-computed tomography (µCT) analysis and histomorphometry was performed to evaluate and quantify ectopic bone formation. In good agreement, both µCT and histomorphometric analysis demonstrated a significant increase in bone formation by cell-seeded calcium phosphate scaffolds as compared to the autograft, allograft and cell-seeded allograft implants. An extensive resorption of the autograft, allograft and cell-seeded allograft implants was observed by histology and confirmed by histomorphometry. Cell-seeded TCP implants also showed distinct signs of degradation with histomorphometry and µCT, while the degradation of the cell-seeded BCP implants was negligible. These results indicate that cell-seeded calcium phosphate scaffolds are superior to autograft, allograft or cell-seeded allograft in terms of bone formation at ectopic implantation sites. In addition, the usefulness of µCT for the efficient and non-destructive analysis of mineralised bone and calcium phosphate scaffold was demonstrated.
Original languageUndefined
Pages (from-to)30-39
JournalEuropean cells & materials
Publication statusPublished - 2007


  • Bone tissue engineering
  • microcomputed tomography (µCT)
  • Mesenchymal stem cells
  • Calcium phosphate
  • IR-80644
  • histomorphometry
  • In vivo test

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