It is with pleasure to announce this special volume of European Polymer Journal including 17 selected papers based on contributions, which were given at the 3rd International Conference on Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) of Polymers at Rolduc Abbey in Kerkrade, in The Netherlands. At this symposium we as organizers strove to support a dialog among polymer scientists with diverse backgrounds, however with one “thing” in common, i.e. the use of various scanning probe techniques in their research aiming at studies of macromolecular systems on the nanoscale. A session was also devoted to single molecule optics related to polymers. The assumption was that SPM-related techniques still provide enough coherence for a meeting despite the fact that SPM has reached a certain level of maturity. Science and technology in nanometer dimensions are at the frontiers of progress in the 21st century. Nanotechnology is emerging as the next wave following the era of semiconductors and biotechnology, and is usually considered as the ultimate production technology of the future. Nanotechnology has brought about emotions, as well: skeptics sometimes classify it as a trendy “buzzword”. In addition, it has also been “plagued” by the negative effects of science fiction like arguments mixing it up with the phantasy world of self-replicating machines, evil nanorobots and other nonsense. On the more serious note, some people question whether nanotechnology would be able to eventually fulfill the high hopes and promises. Progress and achievements in science and technology of the nanoworld has, however, been impressive refuting skeptics by strong arguments and facts. This young interdisciplinary field has gained widespread, solid, serious recognition.