Educational leadership and student achievement: The elusive search for an association

Bob Witziers, Roel Bosker, Meta L. Kruger

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademic

    369 Citations (Scopus)
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    This study revisits the existing scholarly debate on the possible impact of the principal's leadership on student achievement. Both `direct effect' and `indirect effect' models are discussed. A quantitative meta-analysis examines to what extent principals directly affect student outcomes. The small positive effects found in this meta-analysis confirm earlier research findings on the limitations of the direct effects approach to linking leadership with student achievement. Finally, lines of future research inquiry are discussed.
    Original languageUndefined
    Pages (from-to)398-425
    JournalEducational administration quarterly
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - 2003


    • Meta-analysis
    • educational leadership effects
    • IR-60153
    • METIS-213054
    • school leadership and student achievement

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