This study revisits the existing scholarly debate on the possible impact of the principal's leadership on student achievement. Both `direct effect' and `indirect effect' models are discussed. A quantitative meta-analysis examines to what extent principals directly affect student outcomes. The small positive effects found in this meta-analysis confirm earlier research findings on the limitations of the direct effects approach to linking leadership with student achievement. Finally, lines of future research inquiry are discussed.
- educational leadership effects
- school leadership and student achievement
Witziers, B., Bosker, R., & Kruger, M. L. (2003). Educational leadership and student achievement: The elusive search for an association. Educational administration quarterly, 39(3), 398-425. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013161X03253411