Grain boundary conductivities are determined by complex impedance measurements (1–106 Hz) on high-purity ceramics prepared by the alkoxide synthesis and on less pure ceramics obtained from a commercial powder. The grain size was varied systematically in the region 0.36–55 μm. The grain boundary conductivity is strongly influenced by the grain size, impurities and cooling procedure. The grain boundary conductivity increases linearly with the grain size for small grain sizes (0.3 to 2–4 μm) and is constant for larger grain sizes. The calculated specific conductivity of the grain boundary for pure materials is about 100 times smaller than that of the bulk. The grain boundary thickness was estimated to be 5.4 nm. The activation energy of the grain boundary conductivity is 7 kJ mole−1 higher than of the bulk.
Verkerk, M. J., Middelhuis, B. J., & Burggraaf, A. J. (1982). Effect of grain boundaries on the conductivity of high-purity ZrO2-Y2O3 ceramics. Solid state ionics, 6(2), 159-170. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-2738(82)90083-2