Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Kidney Function after Myocardial Infarction: The Alpha Omega Trial

Ellen K. Hoogeveen, Johanna M. Geleijnse, Daan Kromhout, Theo Stijnen, Eugenie F. Gemen, Ron Kusters, Erik J. Giltay

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    Abstract

    Background and objectives: Kidney function gradually decreases with age, and myocardial infarction accelerates this deterioration. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids may slow down the decline of kidney function. The effect of marine and plant-derived n-3 fatty acids on kidney function in patients after myocardial infarction was examined. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: In the Alpha Omega Trial, 2344 patients with history of myocardial infarction ages 60–80 years old (81% men) were randomized to one of four trial margarines. The patients received an additional targeted amount of 400 mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, 2 g/d α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid–docosahexaenoic acid plus α-linolenic acid, or placebo for 40 months. Serum cystatin C and serum creatinine were assessed at baseline and after 40 months. Creatinine–cystatin C-based GFR was estimated with the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation. Results: Patients consumed 19.9 g margarine/d, providing an additional 239 mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid with 159 mg/d docosahexaenoic acid, 1.99 g/d α-linolenic acid, or both in the active treatment groups. After 40 months, compared with baseline, mean (±SD) creatinine–cystatin C-based GFR was −6.9 (±12.6), −4.8 (±13.4), −6.2 (±12.8), and −6.0 (±13.0) ml/min per 1.73 m2 in the placebo, eicosapentaenoic acid–docosahexaenoic acid, α-linolenic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid–docosahexaenoic acid plus α-linolenic acid groups, respectively. After 40 months, in patients receiving eicosapentaenoic acid–docosahexaenoic acid compared with placebo, the decline in creatinine–cystatin C-based GFR was 2.1 less (95% confidence interval, 0.6 to 3.6; P<0.01) ml/min per 1.73 m2; other comparisons were not statistical significant. Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of incident CKD (<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2) and rapid decline of kidney function (≥3 ml/min per year) for eicosapentaenoic acid–docosahexaenoic acid compared with placebo were 0.83 (0.58 to 1.18) and 0.85 (0.67 to 1.08), respectively. Conclusions: Long-term supplementation with 400 mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid–docosahexaenoic acid provides a small beneficial effect on kidney function in patients with a history of myocardial infarction.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1676-1683
    JournalClinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN
    Volume9
    Issue number10
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Oct 2014

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