Effect of polymer chain modifications on elastomer properties – Part 2

Katarzyna S. Bandzierz, Louis Antoine Eugene Maria Reuvekamp, Jerzy Dryzek, Wilma K. Dierkes, Anke Blume, Dariusz Mariusz Bieliński

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademic


Considerable attention is paid to the influence of crosslink density and crosslink structures on behavior of polymer chains and properties
of elastomers. However, a very important parameter seems to be underestimated: the modifications to the polymer chains by
curatives, formed by sulfur and fragments of accelerators. The present paper intends to draw attention to this important contribution
to performance of spatial networks. Emulsion styrene-butadiene rubber (E-SBR) samples, cured with tetramethylthiuram disulfide
with sulfur (TMTD/S8), and zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate with sulfur (ZDT/S8), were studied. They were characterized in detail in
terms of crosslink density and crosslink structures. Microscale techniques were used to obtain information about the behavior of the
polymer chains: PALS to study the free volume structure; DSC and DMA to monitor the glass transition process. Properties such as
static mechanical performance and thermal stability were also evaluated. All of the investigated characteristics were influenced by a
combination of crosslink density, crosslink structures, and, to a large extent, by the modifications of the polymer chains. The effect of
the modifications is dependent on the amount and the structure of the curatives’ molecules. On the basis of the obtained results, the
reliability of „phr” unit used for calculation of the curatives’ amount has been queried. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that
DSC, DMA and PALS techniques can provide evidence for the presence of the modifications on the polymer chain by curatives.
Part 1 (RFP 04 2019) describes how the composition of the curing system generally influences the network structure. It contains the
experimental part and the comparison of the crosslink density, crosslink structures and modifications of the chains, formed as a result
of curing with TMTD/S8 or ZDT/S8. In part 2 the results of DSC, DMA, and PALS measurements show that the modifications of the
polymer chains seem to influence the chain stiffness, inter-chain interactions, glass transition process, ease of crystallization, relaxation
times, free volume size, thermal stability, and tensile strength.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)38-44
Number of pages7
JournalRubber, fibres, plastics international
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2020


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