Effects of turbine spacing on the power output of extended wind-farms

Richard Johannes Antonius Maria Stevens, Dennice F. Gayme, Charles Meneveau

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

68 Citations (Scopus)


We present results from large eddy simulations of extended wind-farms for several turbine configurations with a range of different spanwise and streamwise spacing combinations. The results show that for wind-farms arranged in a staggered configuration with spanwise spacings in the range ≈[3.5,8]D, where D is the turbine diameter, the power output in the fully developed regime depends primarily on the geometric mean of the spanwise and streamwise turbine spacings. In contrast, for the aligned configuration the power output in the fully developed regime strongly depends on the streamwise turbine spacing and shows weak dependence on the spanwise spacing. Of interest to the rate of wake recovery, we find that the power output is well correlated with the vertical kinetic energy flux, which is a measure of how much kinetic energy is transferred into the wind-turbine region by the mean flow. A comparison between the aligned and staggered configurations reveals that the vertical kinetic energy flux is more localized along turbine columns for aligned wind-farms than for staggered ones. This additional mixing leads to a relatively fast wake recovery for aligned wind-farms.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)359-370
Number of pages12
JournalWind energy
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2 Mar 2016


  • METIS-310163
  • IR-95720


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