Electrochemically generated gradients

Sven Krabbenborg, Jurriaan Huskens

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

57 Citations (Scopus)
17 Downloads (Pure)


This review surveys recent developments in the field of electrochemically generated gradients. The gradual variation of properties, which is a key characteristic of gradients, is of eminent importance in technology, for example, directional wetting, as well as biology, for example, chemotaxis. Electrochemical techniques offer many benefits, such as the generation of dynamic solution and surface gradients, integration with electronics, and compatibility with automation. An overview is given of newly developed methods, from purely electrochemical techniques to the combination of electrochemistry with other methods. Electrochemically fabricated gradients are employed extensively for biological and technological applications, such as high-throughput screening, high-throughput deposition, and device development, all of which are covered herein. Especially promising are developments towards the study and control of dynamic phenomena, such as the directional motion of molecules, droplets, and cells.
Original languageUndefined
Pages (from-to)9152-9167
Number of pages16
JournalAngewandte Chemie (international edition)
Issue number35
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • METIS-308483
  • IR-95092

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