EMC Testing of Electricity Meters Using Real-World and Artificial Current Waveforms

Helko E. van den Brom, Ronald van Leeuwen, Zander Marais, Bas ten Have, Tom Hartman, Marco A. Azpúrua, Marc Pous, Gertjan J. P. Kok, Marijn G.A. van Veghel, Ilia Kolevatov, Helge Malmbekk, Ferran Silva, Frank Leferink

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)
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In 2015, the energy measurement of some static electricity meters was found to be sensitive to specific conducted electromagnetic disturbances with very fast current changes caused by highly nonlinear loads, leading to meter errors up to several hundred percent. This article describes new results on the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of 16 different meters from all over Europe when exposed to real-world disturbance signals. Those test signals were obtained from household appliances and onsite measurements at metered supply points all over Europe. The results show that also the interference signals recorded onsite can cause measurement errors as large as several hundred percent, even for meters that pass the present EMC standards. This unambiguously demonstrates that the present immunity testing standards do not cover the most disturbing conducted interference occurring in present daily-life situations due to the increased use of nonlinear electronics. Furthermore, to enable the adoption of potential new test waveforms in future standards for electricity meter testing, artificial test waveforms were constructed based on real-world waveforms using a piece-wise linear model. These artificial test waveforms were demonstrated to cause meter errors similar to those caused by the original real-life waveforms they are representing, showing that they are suitable candidates for use in improved standardization of electricity meter testing.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1865-1874
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE transactions on electromagnetic compatibility
Issue number6
Early online date2 Sept 2021
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021


  • Voltage measurement
  • Current measurement
  • Testing
  • Distortion measurement
  • Pulse measurements
  • Home appliances
  • Meters


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