This paper offers a concise overview of new manufacturing methodologies that are based on emergent synthesis. Starting with the conceptual questions concerning analysis, synthesis and emergence, it classifies the difficulties of synthesis problems with respect to the incompleteness of human knowledge on the environment and of the specification of purpose of the artifact. Then, it clarifies the importance of emergence and self-reference and their relations to solving synthesis problems. It reviews about 300 papers according to the problem classification and in terms of three phases of concept formation, theory and application. It also discusses the system-theoretical aspects of artifactual environment.
- Manufacturing Systems