Empowering the end-user in smart grids: Overview of and recommendations for the design or products and services

Daphne Geelen, Angelina H.M.E. Reinders, David Keyson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

144 Citations (Scopus)
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In discussions on smart grids, it is often stated that residential end-users will play a more active role in the management of electric power supply and demand. They are expected to shift from a passive role as consumer of electricity to an active role as co-provider. In this article, the extent to which current technologies, products and services empower end-users to take up an active role as co-providers is evaluated. Based on a review of literature and related pilot projects, current approaches were found to be driven by technical and financial considerations. There appears to be a lack of product and service design that supports end-users in their role as co-providers in a smart grid. This is reflected in the lack of thought given to how the end-users’ process of behavioral change can be supported to enable the transition from consumer to co-provider. Several recommendations are provided for product and service designers towards fostering the role of co-provider, which comes under under: (a) user interaction needs, (b) approaches to behavioral change and (c) community initiatives and management of resources. Designers are considered to play a bridging role between policy making and engineering, while facilitating involvement of end-users in the design process.
Original languageUndefined
Pages (from-to)151-161
JournalEnergy policy
Publication statusPublished - 2013


  • METIS-294413
  • IR-90742

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