Energy absorbing 4D printed meta-sandwich structures: load cycles and shape recovery

Annamaria Gisario, Maria Pia Desole, Mehrshad Mehrpouya, Massimiliano Barletta*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
1 Downloads (Pure)


The present study investigates the behavior of solid cellular structures in polylactic acid (PLA) achieved by FDM technology (fusion deposition modelling). The geometries are permanently deformed by compressive stress and then subjected to shape recovery through the application of a thermal stimulus. The structures are submitted to medium–high and medium–low compression stresses, evaluating the mechanical properties and the absorption energy as the number of cycles varies. The study shows that the ability to absorb energy is related to the density of the model, as well as the degree of damage observed, which increases with increasing number of load cycles. The strongest geometry is the lozenge grid, which is the most reliable. It shows no damage with increasing compression cycles and keeps its capability to absorb energy almost constant. The increase in lozenge grid density leads to an improvement in both mechanical strength and absorption energy, as well as a lower incidence of microcracks in the geometry itself due to the repeated load cycles. These results open up a broad spectrum of applications of custom-designed solid cellular structures in the field of energy absorption and damping.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1779-1795
Number of pages17
JournalInternational journal of advanced manufacturing technology
Issue number3-4
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2023


  • 4D printing
  • Energy absorbing
  • Metamaterials
  • Shape recovery
  • Springback


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