Energy Efficient Start-up of Crystal Oscillators using Stepwise Charging

Joeri B. Lechevallier*, Harijot Singh Bindra, Ronan A.R. van der Zee, Bram Nauta

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)
689 Downloads (Pure)


Crystal oscillators can be started up quickly by using energy injection techniques. However, the generation of the injection waveform, as well as driving the large capacitive load formed by the crystal, costs a large amount of energy. This article applies the concept of stepwise charging to reduce the energy required to drive the crystal. The energy required to generate the injection waveform by self-timed injection is reduced by using a discrete-time dynamic-bias comparator which uses a simple offset calibration method. Furthermore, the bridge switch resistance is varied dynamically through self-timed control logic to alleviate the accuracy-speed tradeoff. A prototype was manufactured in a 65-nm (triple-well) CMOS technology, which was tested with various crystals ranging from 24 to 50 MHz, improving upon the state of the art in energy consumption.
Original languageEnglish
Article number9373983
Pages (from-to)2427-2437
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE journal of solid-state circuits
Issue number8
Early online date9 Mar 2021
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2021


  • Capacitive load
  • Capacitors
  • Crystals
  • Energy consumption
  • Internet of Things
  • Internet of Things (IoT)
  • Load modeling
  • Oscillators
  • Switches
  • crystal oscillators
  • duty cycling
  • energy injection
  • low power
  • startup energy
  • startup time
  • stepwise charging.


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