Energy for freshwater supply, use and disposal in the Netherlands: a case study of Dutch households

Winnie Gerbens-Leenes

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17 Citations (Scopus)
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This study presents energy requirements for Dutch household water: 10.2 GJ per capita per year, which includes 9.3 GJ (92%) for heating water, 0.6 GJ (6%) for water supply, and 0.2 GJ for wastewater treatment (2%). The top three energy consumers include shower water (58%), dishwasher water (9%) and washing machine water (8%). The Netherlands, a water-abundant country, expends far more energy to heat water for households than to supply municipal water, or to treat and dispose of wastewater. Policies to make water chains more sustainable should focus on use, rather than supply and disposal.
Original languageUndefined
Pages (from-to)398-411
JournalInternational journal of water resources development
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 5 Feb 2016


  • METIS-315442
  • IR-99969

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