This study presents energy requirements for Dutch household water: 10.2 GJ per capita per year, which includes 9.3 GJ (92%) for heating water, 0.6 GJ (6%) for water supply, and 0.2 GJ for wastewater treatment (2%). The top three energy consumers include shower water (58%), dishwasher water (9%) and washing machine water (8%). The Netherlands, a water-abundant country, expends far more energy to heat water for households than to supply municipal water, or to treat and dispose of wastewater. Policies to make water chains more sustainable should focus on use, rather than supply and disposal.
|Journal||International journal of water resources development|
|Publication status||Published - 5 Feb 2016|