Engaging elderly people in telemedicine through gamification

Anna Frederiek Alberdien de Vette, Monique Tabak, Marit van Weering, Miriam Marie Rosé Vollenbroek-Hutten

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Telemedicine can alleviate the increasing demand for elderly care caused by the rapidly aging population. However, user adherence to technology in telemedicine interventions is low and decreases over time. Therefore, there is a need for methods to increase adherence, specifically of the elderly user. A strategy that has recently emerged to address this problem is gamification. It is the application of game elements to nongame fields to motivate and increase user activity and retention.

OBJECTIVE: This research aims to (1) provide an overview of existing theoretical frameworks for gamification and explore methods that specifically target the elderly user and (2) explore user classification theories for tailoring game content to the elderly user. This knowledge will provide a foundation for creating a new framework for applying gamification in telemedicine applications to effectively engage the elderly user by increasing and maintaining adherence.

METHODS: We performed a broad Internet search using scientific and nonscientific search engines and included information that described either of the following subjects: the conceptualization of gamification, methods to engage elderly users through gamification, or user classification theories for tailored game content.

RESULTS: Our search showed two main approaches concerning frameworks for gamification: from business practices, which mostly aim for more revenue, emerge an applied approach, while academia frameworks are developed incorporating theories on motivation while often aiming for lasting engagement. The search provided limited information regarding the application of gamification to engage elderly users, and a significant gap in knowledge on the effectiveness of a gamified application in practice. Several approaches for classifying users in general were found, based on archetypes and reasons to play, and we present them along with their corresponding taxonomies. The overview we created indicates great connectivity between these taxonomies.

CONCLUSIONS: Gamification frameworks have been developed from different backgrounds-business and academia-but rarely target the elderly user. The effectiveness of user classifications for tailored game content in this context is not yet known. As a next step, we propose the development of a framework based on the hypothesized existence of a relation between preference for game content and personality.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere9
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of medical internet research
Volume3
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 18 Dec 2015

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Telemedicine
Game Theory
Search Engine
Internet
Personality
Motivation
Technology
Research

Keywords

  • Personality
  • Telemedicine
  • Older adults
  • player type
  • EWI-26597
  • Adherence
  • Classification
  • Framework
  • Gamification
  • Engagement
  • EHealth
  • Elderly
  • METIS-315110
  • IR-98839

Cite this

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title = "Engaging elderly people in telemedicine through gamification",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: Telemedicine can alleviate the increasing demand for elderly care caused by the rapidly aging population. However, user adherence to technology in telemedicine interventions is low and decreases over time. Therefore, there is a need for methods to increase adherence, specifically of the elderly user. A strategy that has recently emerged to address this problem is gamification. It is the application of game elements to nongame fields to motivate and increase user activity and retention.OBJECTIVE: This research aims to (1) provide an overview of existing theoretical frameworks for gamification and explore methods that specifically target the elderly user and (2) explore user classification theories for tailoring game content to the elderly user. This knowledge will provide a foundation for creating a new framework for applying gamification in telemedicine applications to effectively engage the elderly user by increasing and maintaining adherence.METHODS: We performed a broad Internet search using scientific and nonscientific search engines and included information that described either of the following subjects: the conceptualization of gamification, methods to engage elderly users through gamification, or user classification theories for tailored game content.RESULTS: Our search showed two main approaches concerning frameworks for gamification: from business practices, which mostly aim for more revenue, emerge an applied approach, while academia frameworks are developed incorporating theories on motivation while often aiming for lasting engagement. The search provided limited information regarding the application of gamification to engage elderly users, and a significant gap in knowledge on the effectiveness of a gamified application in practice. Several approaches for classifying users in general were found, based on archetypes and reasons to play, and we present them along with their corresponding taxonomies. The overview we created indicates great connectivity between these taxonomies.CONCLUSIONS: Gamification frameworks have been developed from different backgrounds-business and academia-but rarely target the elderly user. The effectiveness of user classifications for tailored game content in this context is not yet known. As a next step, we propose the development of a framework based on the hypothesized existence of a relation between preference for game content and personality.",
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Engaging elderly people in telemedicine through gamification. / de Vette, Anna Frederiek Alberdien; Tabak, Monique; van Weering, Marit; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé.

In: Journal of medical internet research, Vol. 3, No. 2, e9, 18.12.2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Engaging elderly people in telemedicine through gamification

AU - de Vette, Anna Frederiek Alberdien

AU - Tabak, Monique

AU - van Weering, Marit

AU - Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé

N1 - eemcs-eprint-26597

PY - 2015/12/18

Y1 - 2015/12/18

N2 - BACKGROUND: Telemedicine can alleviate the increasing demand for elderly care caused by the rapidly aging population. However, user adherence to technology in telemedicine interventions is low and decreases over time. Therefore, there is a need for methods to increase adherence, specifically of the elderly user. A strategy that has recently emerged to address this problem is gamification. It is the application of game elements to nongame fields to motivate and increase user activity and retention.OBJECTIVE: This research aims to (1) provide an overview of existing theoretical frameworks for gamification and explore methods that specifically target the elderly user and (2) explore user classification theories for tailoring game content to the elderly user. This knowledge will provide a foundation for creating a new framework for applying gamification in telemedicine applications to effectively engage the elderly user by increasing and maintaining adherence.METHODS: We performed a broad Internet search using scientific and nonscientific search engines and included information that described either of the following subjects: the conceptualization of gamification, methods to engage elderly users through gamification, or user classification theories for tailored game content.RESULTS: Our search showed two main approaches concerning frameworks for gamification: from business practices, which mostly aim for more revenue, emerge an applied approach, while academia frameworks are developed incorporating theories on motivation while often aiming for lasting engagement. The search provided limited information regarding the application of gamification to engage elderly users, and a significant gap in knowledge on the effectiveness of a gamified application in practice. Several approaches for classifying users in general were found, based on archetypes and reasons to play, and we present them along with their corresponding taxonomies. The overview we created indicates great connectivity between these taxonomies.CONCLUSIONS: Gamification frameworks have been developed from different backgrounds-business and academia-but rarely target the elderly user. The effectiveness of user classifications for tailored game content in this context is not yet known. As a next step, we propose the development of a framework based on the hypothesized existence of a relation between preference for game content and personality.

AB - BACKGROUND: Telemedicine can alleviate the increasing demand for elderly care caused by the rapidly aging population. However, user adherence to technology in telemedicine interventions is low and decreases over time. Therefore, there is a need for methods to increase adherence, specifically of the elderly user. A strategy that has recently emerged to address this problem is gamification. It is the application of game elements to nongame fields to motivate and increase user activity and retention.OBJECTIVE: This research aims to (1) provide an overview of existing theoretical frameworks for gamification and explore methods that specifically target the elderly user and (2) explore user classification theories for tailoring game content to the elderly user. This knowledge will provide a foundation for creating a new framework for applying gamification in telemedicine applications to effectively engage the elderly user by increasing and maintaining adherence.METHODS: We performed a broad Internet search using scientific and nonscientific search engines and included information that described either of the following subjects: the conceptualization of gamification, methods to engage elderly users through gamification, or user classification theories for tailored game content.RESULTS: Our search showed two main approaches concerning frameworks for gamification: from business practices, which mostly aim for more revenue, emerge an applied approach, while academia frameworks are developed incorporating theories on motivation while often aiming for lasting engagement. The search provided limited information regarding the application of gamification to engage elderly users, and a significant gap in knowledge on the effectiveness of a gamified application in practice. Several approaches for classifying users in general were found, based on archetypes and reasons to play, and we present them along with their corresponding taxonomies. The overview we created indicates great connectivity between these taxonomies.CONCLUSIONS: Gamification frameworks have been developed from different backgrounds-business and academia-but rarely target the elderly user. The effectiveness of user classifications for tailored game content in this context is not yet known. As a next step, we propose the development of a framework based on the hypothesized existence of a relation between preference for game content and personality.

KW - Personality

KW - Telemedicine

KW - Older adults

KW - player type

KW - EWI-26597

KW - Adherence

KW - Classification

KW - Framework

KW - Gamification

KW - Engagement

KW - EHealth

KW - Elderly

KW - METIS-315110

KW - IR-98839

U2 - 10.2196/games.4561

DO - 10.2196/games.4561

M3 - Article

VL - 3

JO - Journal of medical internet research

JF - Journal of medical internet research

SN - 1439-4456

IS - 2

M1 - e9

ER -