Engulfment control of platinum nanoparticles into oxidized silicon substrates for fabrication of dense solid-state nanopore arrays

Hai Le-The, Corentin Tregouet, Michael Kappl, Maren Müller, Katrin Kirchhoff, Detlef Lohse, Albert Van Den Berg, Mathieu Odijk, Jan C.T. Eijkel (Corresponding Author)

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Abstract

We found that platinum (Pt) nanoparticles, upon annealing at high temperature of 1000 °C, are engulfed into amorphous fused-silica or thermal oxide silicon substrates. The same phenomenon was previously published for gold (Au) nanoparticles. Similar to the Au nanoparticles, the engulfed Pt nanoparticles connect to the surface of the substrates through conical nanopores, and the size of the Pt nanoparticles decreases with increasing depth of the nanopores. We explain the phenomena as driven by the formation of platinum oxide by reaction of the platinum with atmospheric oxygen, with platinum oxide evaporating to the environment. We found that the use of Pt provides much better controllability than the use of Au. Due to the high vapor pressure of platinum oxide, the engulfment of the Pt nanoparticles into oxidized silicon (SiO2) substrates is faster than of Au nanoparticles. At high temperature annealing we also find that the aggregation of Pt nanoparticles on the substrate surface is insignificant. As a result, the Pt nanoparticles are uniformly engulfed into the substrates, leading to an opportunity for patterning dense nanopore arrays. Moreover, the use of oxidized Si substrates enables us to precisely control the depth of the nanopores since the engulfment of Pt nanoparticles stops at a short distance above the SiO x /Si interface. After subsequent etching steps, a membrane with dense nanopore through-holes with diameters down to sub-30 nm is obtained. With its simple operation and high controllability, this fabrication method provides an alternative for rapid patterning of dense arrays of solid-state nanopores at low-cost.

Original languageEnglish
Article number065301
JournalNanotechnology
Volume30
Issue number6
Early online date15 Nov 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 7 Dec 2018

Fingerprint

Nanopores
Silicon
Platinum
Nanoparticles
Fabrication
Substrates
Controllability
Oxides
Annealing
Silicon oxides
Fused silica
Vapor pressure
Gold
Etching
Agglomeration
Oxygen
Membranes
Temperature

Keywords

  • Engulfment
  • Pt nanoparticles
  • Solid-state nanopores
  • Through-hole nanomembranes

Cite this

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title = "Engulfment control of platinum nanoparticles into oxidized silicon substrates for fabrication of dense solid-state nanopore arrays",
abstract = "We found that platinum (Pt) nanoparticles, upon annealing at high temperature of 1000 °C, are engulfed into amorphous fused-silica or thermal oxide silicon substrates. The same phenomenon was previously published for gold (Au) nanoparticles. Similar to the Au nanoparticles, the engulfed Pt nanoparticles connect to the surface of the substrates through conical nanopores, and the size of the Pt nanoparticles decreases with increasing depth of the nanopores. We explain the phenomena as driven by the formation of platinum oxide by reaction of the platinum with atmospheric oxygen, with platinum oxide evaporating to the environment. We found that the use of Pt provides much better controllability than the use of Au. Due to the high vapor pressure of platinum oxide, the engulfment of the Pt nanoparticles into oxidized silicon (SiO2) substrates is faster than of Au nanoparticles. At high temperature annealing we also find that the aggregation of Pt nanoparticles on the substrate surface is insignificant. As a result, the Pt nanoparticles are uniformly engulfed into the substrates, leading to an opportunity for patterning dense nanopore arrays. Moreover, the use of oxidized Si substrates enables us to precisely control the depth of the nanopores since the engulfment of Pt nanoparticles stops at a short distance above the SiO x /Si interface. After subsequent etching steps, a membrane with dense nanopore through-holes with diameters down to sub-30 nm is obtained. With its simple operation and high controllability, this fabrication method provides an alternative for rapid patterning of dense arrays of solid-state nanopores at low-cost.",
keywords = "Engulfment, Pt nanoparticles, Solid-state nanopores, Through-hole nanomembranes",
author = "Hai Le-The and Corentin Tregouet and Michael Kappl and Maren M{\"u}ller and Katrin Kirchhoff and Detlef Lohse and {Van Den Berg}, Albert and Mathieu Odijk and Eijkel, {Jan C.T.}",
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Engulfment control of platinum nanoparticles into oxidized silicon substrates for fabrication of dense solid-state nanopore arrays. / Le-The, Hai; Tregouet, Corentin; Kappl, Michael; Müller, Maren; Kirchhoff, Katrin; Lohse, Detlef; Van Den Berg, Albert; Odijk, Mathieu; Eijkel, Jan C.T. (Corresponding Author).

In: Nanotechnology, Vol. 30, No. 6, 065301, 07.12.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Engulfment control of platinum nanoparticles into oxidized silicon substrates for fabrication of dense solid-state nanopore arrays

AU - Le-The, Hai

AU - Tregouet, Corentin

AU - Kappl, Michael

AU - Müller, Maren

AU - Kirchhoff, Katrin

AU - Lohse, Detlef

AU - Van Den Berg, Albert

AU - Odijk, Mathieu

AU - Eijkel, Jan C.T.

PY - 2018/12/7

Y1 - 2018/12/7

N2 - We found that platinum (Pt) nanoparticles, upon annealing at high temperature of 1000 °C, are engulfed into amorphous fused-silica or thermal oxide silicon substrates. The same phenomenon was previously published for gold (Au) nanoparticles. Similar to the Au nanoparticles, the engulfed Pt nanoparticles connect to the surface of the substrates through conical nanopores, and the size of the Pt nanoparticles decreases with increasing depth of the nanopores. We explain the phenomena as driven by the formation of platinum oxide by reaction of the platinum with atmospheric oxygen, with platinum oxide evaporating to the environment. We found that the use of Pt provides much better controllability than the use of Au. Due to the high vapor pressure of platinum oxide, the engulfment of the Pt nanoparticles into oxidized silicon (SiO2) substrates is faster than of Au nanoparticles. At high temperature annealing we also find that the aggregation of Pt nanoparticles on the substrate surface is insignificant. As a result, the Pt nanoparticles are uniformly engulfed into the substrates, leading to an opportunity for patterning dense nanopore arrays. Moreover, the use of oxidized Si substrates enables us to precisely control the depth of the nanopores since the engulfment of Pt nanoparticles stops at a short distance above the SiO x /Si interface. After subsequent etching steps, a membrane with dense nanopore through-holes with diameters down to sub-30 nm is obtained. With its simple operation and high controllability, this fabrication method provides an alternative for rapid patterning of dense arrays of solid-state nanopores at low-cost.

AB - We found that platinum (Pt) nanoparticles, upon annealing at high temperature of 1000 °C, are engulfed into amorphous fused-silica or thermal oxide silicon substrates. The same phenomenon was previously published for gold (Au) nanoparticles. Similar to the Au nanoparticles, the engulfed Pt nanoparticles connect to the surface of the substrates through conical nanopores, and the size of the Pt nanoparticles decreases with increasing depth of the nanopores. We explain the phenomena as driven by the formation of platinum oxide by reaction of the platinum with atmospheric oxygen, with platinum oxide evaporating to the environment. We found that the use of Pt provides much better controllability than the use of Au. Due to the high vapor pressure of platinum oxide, the engulfment of the Pt nanoparticles into oxidized silicon (SiO2) substrates is faster than of Au nanoparticles. At high temperature annealing we also find that the aggregation of Pt nanoparticles on the substrate surface is insignificant. As a result, the Pt nanoparticles are uniformly engulfed into the substrates, leading to an opportunity for patterning dense nanopore arrays. Moreover, the use of oxidized Si substrates enables us to precisely control the depth of the nanopores since the engulfment of Pt nanoparticles stops at a short distance above the SiO x /Si interface. After subsequent etching steps, a membrane with dense nanopore through-holes with diameters down to sub-30 nm is obtained. With its simple operation and high controllability, this fabrication method provides an alternative for rapid patterning of dense arrays of solid-state nanopores at low-cost.

KW - Engulfment

KW - Pt nanoparticles

KW - Solid-state nanopores

KW - Through-hole nanomembranes

U2 - 10.1088/1361-6528/aaf114

DO - 10.1088/1361-6528/aaf114

M3 - Article

VL - 30

JO - Nanotechnology

JF - Nanotechnology

SN - 0957-4484

IS - 6

M1 - 065301

ER -