Estimating the social value of nature‑based solutions in European cities

M. Bočkarjova*, Wouter J.W. Botzen, H.A. Bukeley, Helen Toxopeus

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
26 Downloads (Pure)


By implementing nature-based solutions (NBS), cities generate value for their residents, such as health and wellbeing. We estimate the aggregate social value to urban residents of 85 NBS projects implemented across Europe and find that the majority yield attractive social returns on investment. We offer a new metric to support investments for NBS by public and private actors for whom social value creation to residents is a core objective.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-7
Number of pages7
JournalScientific reports
Issue number19833
Publication statusPublished - 18 Nov 2022




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