The separation of ethanol-water mixtures is of great importance for the production of ethanol from biomass. Both ultrafiltration and pervaporation processes can be used for the continuous processing of fermentation and separation, The removal of ethanol from the ultrafiltration permeate can be accomplished by pervaporation. Separation of ethanol-water mixtures by the pervaporation process has been investigated. Results are presented for membranes which are preferentially permeable for ethanol and for others which are preferentially water permeable. Details on the preparation of several membrane types (homogeneous, asymmetric and composite) are given. A schematic process diagram is given in which the fermentation of sugars to ethanol is membrane-controlled.