Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature (LST) products are widely used in ecology, hydrology, vegetation monitoring, and global circulation models. Compared to the collection-5 (C5) LST products, the newly released collection-6 (C6) LST products have been refined over bare soil pixels. This study aims to evaluate the C6 MODIS 1-km LST product using multi-year in situ data covering barren surfaces. Evaluation using all in situ data shows that the MODIS C6 LSTs are underestimated with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 2.59 K for the site in the Gobi area, 3.05 K for the site in the sand desert area, and 2.86 K for the site in the desert steppe area at daytime. For nighttime LSTs, the RMSEs are 2.01 K, 2.88 K, and 1.80 K for the three sites, respectively. Both biases and RMSEs also show strong seasonal signals. Compared to the error of C5 1-km LSTs, the RMSE of C6 1-km LST product is smaller, especially for daytime LSTs, with a value of 2.24 K compared to 3.51 K. The large errors in the sand desert region are presumably due to the lack of global representativeness of the magnitude of emissivity adjustment and misclassification for the barren surface causing error in emissivities. It indicates that the accuracy of the MODIS C6 LST product might be further improved through emissivity adjustment with globally representative magnitude and accurate land cover classification. From this study, the MODIS C6 1-km LST product is recommended for applications.