Evaluation of irrigant flow in the root canal using different needle types by an unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics model

C. Boutsioukis, Christos Boutsioukis, B. Verhaagen, Michel Versluis, Eleftherios Kastrinakis, Paul R. Wesselink, Lucas W.M. van der Sluis

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Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of needle tip design on the irrigant flow inside a prepared root canal during final irrigation with a syringe using a validated Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model. Methods: A CFD model was created to simulate the irrigant flow inside a prepared root canal. Six different types of 30-G needles, three open-ended needles and three close-ended needles, were tested. Using this CFD model, the irrigant flow in the apical root canal was calculated and visualized. As a result, the streaming velocity, the apical pressure, and the shear stress on the root canal wall were evaluated. Results: The open-ended needles created a jet toward the apex and maximum irrigant replacement. Within this group, the notched needle appeared less efficient in terms of irrigant replacement than the other two types. Within the close-ended group, the side-vented and double side-vented needle created a series of vortices and a less efficient irrigant replacement; the side-vented needle was slightly more efficient. The multi-vented needle created almost no flow apically to its tip, and wall shear stress was concentrated on a limited area, but the apical pressure was significantly lower than the other types. Conclusions: The flow pattern of the open-ended needles was different from the close-ended needles, resulting in more irrigant replacement in front of the open-ended needles but also higher apical pressure.
Original languageUndefined
Pages (from-to)875-879
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of endodontics
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2010


  • Computational Fluid Dynamics
  • Needle
  • IR-79606
  • tip
  • METIS-268004
  • Irrigation

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