Evaluation of Membrane Integrity Monitoring Methods for Hollow Fiber Nanofiltration Membranes: Applicability in Gray Water Reclamation Systems

Samuel Benjamin Rutten*, Bukola Lois Ojobe, Lucia Hernández Leal*, Joris de Grooth, Hendrik D.W. Roesink, Jan Bartacek, Heike Schmitt

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
3 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Source-separated gray water reclamation using nanofiltration as an advanced post-treatment option has received substantial interest in meeting the growing water demand. During reclamation, membrane integrity is crucial to ensure the water’s safety. This study evaluated several chemical and novel microbial indicators as indirect membrane integrity-monitoring methods for hollow fiber nanofiltration membranes in reclamation schemes. Under normal conditions, high retention of divalent ions and organic matter and near-complete removal of Escherichia coli (E. coli) were observed. Limited removal of the antibiotic gene (ARG) tetO was observed due to low feed concentrations and a higher detection limit (LOD). While 16S rRNA and ARG sul1 were not limited by their LODs, lower removals were observed, most likely due to free-floating DNA passing through the membranes. A broken fiber in a pilot-scale module reduced organic matter and microorganism removal substantially, while flux and ion rejection remained similar. Predictions made using the observed results and a previously proposed model allowed for the evaluation of the selected methods in upscaled reclamation systems. Based on these results, it was concluded that microorganisms could be employed as indicators in indirect membrane integrity-monitoring methods in large-scale reclamation schemes, while UV254nm absorbance (used in organic matter determination) could be a viable solution in pilot-scale systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3884-3892
Number of pages9
JournalACS ES and T Water
Volume3
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 8 Dec 2023

Keywords

  • UT-Hybrid-D
  • gray water reclamation
  • hollow fiber
  • indirect membrane monitoring
  • nanofiltration
  • source-separated sanitation
  • antibiotic-resistant genes

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Evaluation of Membrane Integrity Monitoring Methods for Hollow Fiber Nanofiltration Membranes: Applicability in Gray Water Reclamation Systems'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this