Evolution of excitation–Inhibition ratio in cortical cultures exposed to hypoxia

Joost le Feber* (Corresponding Author), Anneloes Dummer, Gerco C. Hassink, Michel J.A.M. van Putten, Jeannette Hofmeijer

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

In the core of a brain infarct, neuronal death occurs within minutes after loss of perfusion. In the penumbra, a surrounding area with some residual perfusion, neurons initially remain structurally intact, but hypoxia-induced synaptic failure impedes neuronal activity. Penumbral activity may recover or further deteriorate, reflecting cell death. Mechanisms leading to either outcome remain ill-understood, but may involve changes in the excitation to inhibition (E/I) ratio. The E/I ratio is determined by structural (relative densities of excitatory and inhibitory synapses) and functional factors (synaptic strengths). Clinical studies demonstrated excitability alterations in regions surrounding the infarct core. These may be related to structural E/I changes, but the effects of hypoxia/ischemia on structural connectivity have not yet been investigated, and the role of structural connectivity changes in excitability alterations remains unclear. We investigated the evolution of the structural E/I ratio and associated network excitability in cortical cultures exposed to severe hypoxia of varying duration. 6–12 h of hypoxia reduced the total synaptic density. In particular, the inhibitory synaptic density dropped significantly, resulting in an elevated E/I ratio. Initially, this does not lead to increased excitability due to hypoxia-induced synaptic failure. Increased excitability becomes apparent upon reoxygenation after 6 or 12 h, but not after 24 h. After 24 h of hypoxia, structural patterns of vesicular glutamate stainings change. This possibly reflects disassembly of excitatory synapses, and may account for the irreversible reduction of activity and stimulus responses seen after 24 h.

Original languageEnglish
Article number183
JournalFrontiers in cellular neuroscience
Volume12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 3 Jul 2018

Fingerprint

Synapses
Perfusion
Specific Gravity
Hypoxia
Glutamic Acid
Cell Death
Ischemia
Staining and Labeling
Neurons
Brain
Cortical Excitability
Clinical Studies

Keywords

  • Electrophysiology
  • Excitability
  • Immunocytochemistry
  • Synapse density
  • Vesicular transporter proteins

Cite this

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title = "Evolution of excitation–Inhibition ratio in cortical cultures exposed to hypoxia",
abstract = "In the core of a brain infarct, neuronal death occurs within minutes after loss of perfusion. In the penumbra, a surrounding area with some residual perfusion, neurons initially remain structurally intact, but hypoxia-induced synaptic failure impedes neuronal activity. Penumbral activity may recover or further deteriorate, reflecting cell death. Mechanisms leading to either outcome remain ill-understood, but may involve changes in the excitation to inhibition (E/I) ratio. The E/I ratio is determined by structural (relative densities of excitatory and inhibitory synapses) and functional factors (synaptic strengths). Clinical studies demonstrated excitability alterations in regions surrounding the infarct core. These may be related to structural E/I changes, but the effects of hypoxia/ischemia on structural connectivity have not yet been investigated, and the role of structural connectivity changes in excitability alterations remains unclear. We investigated the evolution of the structural E/I ratio and associated network excitability in cortical cultures exposed to severe hypoxia of varying duration. 6–12 h of hypoxia reduced the total synaptic density. In particular, the inhibitory synaptic density dropped significantly, resulting in an elevated E/I ratio. Initially, this does not lead to increased excitability due to hypoxia-induced synaptic failure. Increased excitability becomes apparent upon reoxygenation after 6 or 12 h, but not after 24 h. After 24 h of hypoxia, structural patterns of vesicular glutamate stainings change. This possibly reflects disassembly of excitatory synapses, and may account for the irreversible reduction of activity and stimulus responses seen after 24 h.",
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AU - Hassink, Gerco C.

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AU - Hofmeijer, Jeannette

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N2 - In the core of a brain infarct, neuronal death occurs within minutes after loss of perfusion. In the penumbra, a surrounding area with some residual perfusion, neurons initially remain structurally intact, but hypoxia-induced synaptic failure impedes neuronal activity. Penumbral activity may recover or further deteriorate, reflecting cell death. Mechanisms leading to either outcome remain ill-understood, but may involve changes in the excitation to inhibition (E/I) ratio. The E/I ratio is determined by structural (relative densities of excitatory and inhibitory synapses) and functional factors (synaptic strengths). Clinical studies demonstrated excitability alterations in regions surrounding the infarct core. These may be related to structural E/I changes, but the effects of hypoxia/ischemia on structural connectivity have not yet been investigated, and the role of structural connectivity changes in excitability alterations remains unclear. We investigated the evolution of the structural E/I ratio and associated network excitability in cortical cultures exposed to severe hypoxia of varying duration. 6–12 h of hypoxia reduced the total synaptic density. In particular, the inhibitory synaptic density dropped significantly, resulting in an elevated E/I ratio. Initially, this does not lead to increased excitability due to hypoxia-induced synaptic failure. Increased excitability becomes apparent upon reoxygenation after 6 or 12 h, but not after 24 h. After 24 h of hypoxia, structural patterns of vesicular glutamate stainings change. This possibly reflects disassembly of excitatory synapses, and may account for the irreversible reduction of activity and stimulus responses seen after 24 h.

AB - In the core of a brain infarct, neuronal death occurs within minutes after loss of perfusion. In the penumbra, a surrounding area with some residual perfusion, neurons initially remain structurally intact, but hypoxia-induced synaptic failure impedes neuronal activity. Penumbral activity may recover or further deteriorate, reflecting cell death. Mechanisms leading to either outcome remain ill-understood, but may involve changes in the excitation to inhibition (E/I) ratio. The E/I ratio is determined by structural (relative densities of excitatory and inhibitory synapses) and functional factors (synaptic strengths). Clinical studies demonstrated excitability alterations in regions surrounding the infarct core. These may be related to structural E/I changes, but the effects of hypoxia/ischemia on structural connectivity have not yet been investigated, and the role of structural connectivity changes in excitability alterations remains unclear. We investigated the evolution of the structural E/I ratio and associated network excitability in cortical cultures exposed to severe hypoxia of varying duration. 6–12 h of hypoxia reduced the total synaptic density. In particular, the inhibitory synaptic density dropped significantly, resulting in an elevated E/I ratio. Initially, this does not lead to increased excitability due to hypoxia-induced synaptic failure. Increased excitability becomes apparent upon reoxygenation after 6 or 12 h, but not after 24 h. After 24 h of hypoxia, structural patterns of vesicular glutamate stainings change. This possibly reflects disassembly of excitatory synapses, and may account for the irreversible reduction of activity and stimulus responses seen after 24 h.

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