Experimental investigations of indirect noise due to modulation of axial vorticity and entropy upstream of a choked nozzle

L. Hirschberg, F. Bake, K. Knobloch, S. J. Hulshoff, A. Hirschberg*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
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An experimental cold-gas study of the response of a choked convergent–divergent nozzle to swirl perturbations is presented. The perturbations were obtained by means of upstream unsteady tangential injections into initially steady flows with different values of steady background swirl. The swirl perturbations induced changes in the axial mass-flow rate, due to either their ingestion or evacuation by the nozzle. This in turn caused a downstream acoustic response. For low-intensity background swirl the responses were found to be similar to those obtained without steady background swirl. Perturbations of a high-intensity background swirl led to different effects. For long injection times, the negative mass-flow rate modulation occurred in two stages. The first stage was similar to that of the background-swirl free case. The second stage occurred after a short time delay, and induced a much stronger negative acoustic response. This unexpected behavior suggests that a significant part of the tangentially injected fluid flows upstream inducing an accumulation of swirl, which is – after tangential injection is ceased – suddenly cleared out through the nozzle. A scaling rule for the amplitudes of these acoustic responses is reported. Furthermore, quasi-steady models, based on steady-state measurements are proposed. These models predict the downstream acoustic response amplitude within a factor two. Additionally, preliminary empirical evidence of the effect of swirl on the downstream acoustic response due to the interaction of entropy patches with a choked nozzle is reported. This was obtained by comparison of sound produced by abrupt radial or tangential sonic injection, upstream from the choked nozzle, of air from a reservoir at room temperature to that from a reservoir with a higher stagnation temperature. Because the mass flow through the nozzle does not increase instantaneously, the injected higher-enthalpy air accumulates upstream of the injection-port position in the main flow. This eventually induces a large downstream acoustic pulse when tangential injection is interrupted. The magnitude of the resulting sound pulse can reach that of a quasi-steady response of the nozzle to a large air patch with a uniform stagnation temperature equal to that of the upstream-injected heated air. This hypothesis is consistent with the fact that the initial indirect-sound pulse is identical to one obtained with unheated air injection. The authors posit that – given all of the insight gleaned from them in this case – acoustic measurements of indirect sound appear to be a potentially useful diagnostic tool.

Original languageEnglish
Article number116989
JournalJournal of sound and vibration
Publication statusPublished - 18 Aug 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Aeroacoustics
  • Entropy noise
  • Indirect combustion noise
  • Swirl
  • Vorticity noise


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