Experimental study of EUV mirror radiation damage resistance under long-term free-electron laser exposures below the single-shot damage threshold

Igor A. Makhotkin, Ryszard Sobierajski, Jaromir Chalupsky, Kai Tiedtke, Gosse de Vries, Michael Störmer, Frank Scholze, Frank Siewert, Robbert W.E. van de Kruijs, Igor Milov, Eric Louis, Iwanna Jacyna, Marek Jurek, Dorota Klinger, Laurent Nittler, Yevgen Syryanyy, Libor Juha, Věra Hájková, Vojtěch Vozda, Tomáš Burian & 13 others Karel Saksl, Bart Faatz, Barbara Keitel, Elke Plonjes, Siegfried Schreiber, Sven Toleikis, Rolf Loch, Martin Hermann, Sebastian Strobel, Han Kwang Nienhuys, Grzegorz Gwalt, Tobias Mey, Hartmut Enkisch

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Abstract

The durability of grazing- and normal-incidence optical coatings has been experimentally assessed under free-electron laser irradiation at various numbers of pulses up to 16 million shots and various fluence levels below 10% of the single-shot damage threshold. The experiment was performed at FLASH, the Free-electron LASer in Hamburg, using 13.5 nm extreme UV (EUV) radiation with 100 fs pulse duration. Polycrystalline ruthenium and amorphous carbon 50 nm thin films on silicon substrates were tested at total external reflection angles of 20° and 10° grazing incidence, respectively. Mo/Si periodical multilayer structures were tested in the Bragg reflection condition at 16° off-normal angle of incidence. The exposed areas were analysed post-mortem using differential contrast visible light microscopy, EUV reflectivity mapping and scanning X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The analysis revealed that Ru and Mo/Si coatings exposed to the highest dose and fluence level show a few per cent drop in their EUV reflectivity, which is explained by EUV-induced oxidation of the surface.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)77-84
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of synchrotron radiation
Volume25
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2018

Fingerprint

Free electron lasers
Radiation damage
yield point
radiation damage
free electron lasers
shot
fluence
Mirrors
incidence
mirrors
reflectance
optical coatings
grazing
durability
grazing incidence
free electrons
laminates
ruthenium
pulse duration
photoelectron spectroscopy

Keywords

  • UT-Hybrid-D
  • EUV optics
  • Thin Films
  • FELs
  • Free-electron laser induced damage
  • Free-Electron laser induced damage
  • thin films

Cite this

Makhotkin, Igor A. ; Sobierajski, Ryszard ; Chalupsky, Jaromir ; Tiedtke, Kai ; de Vries, Gosse ; Störmer, Michael ; Scholze, Frank ; Siewert, Frank ; van de Kruijs, Robbert W.E. ; Milov, Igor ; Louis, Eric ; Jacyna, Iwanna ; Jurek, Marek ; Klinger, Dorota ; Nittler, Laurent ; Syryanyy, Yevgen ; Juha, Libor ; Hájková, Věra ; Vozda, Vojtěch ; Burian, Tomáš ; Saksl, Karel ; Faatz, Bart ; Keitel, Barbara ; Plonjes, Elke ; Schreiber, Siegfried ; Toleikis, Sven ; Loch, Rolf ; Hermann, Martin ; Strobel, Sebastian ; Nienhuys, Han Kwang ; Gwalt, Grzegorz ; Mey, Tobias ; Enkisch, Hartmut. / Experimental study of EUV mirror radiation damage resistance under long-term free-electron laser exposures below the single-shot damage threshold. In: Journal of synchrotron radiation. 2018 ; Vol. 25, No. 1. pp. 77-84.
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title = "Experimental study of EUV mirror radiation damage resistance under long-term free-electron laser exposures below the single-shot damage threshold",
abstract = "The durability of grazing- and normal-incidence optical coatings has been experimentally assessed under free-electron laser irradiation at various numbers of pulses up to 16 million shots and various fluence levels below 10{\%} of the single-shot damage threshold. The experiment was performed at FLASH, the Free-electron LASer in Hamburg, using 13.5 nm extreme UV (EUV) radiation with 100 fs pulse duration. Polycrystalline ruthenium and amorphous carbon 50 nm thin films on silicon substrates were tested at total external reflection angles of 20° and 10° grazing incidence, respectively. Mo/Si periodical multilayer structures were tested in the Bragg reflection condition at 16° off-normal angle of incidence. The exposed areas were analysed post-mortem using differential contrast visible light microscopy, EUV reflectivity mapping and scanning X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The analysis revealed that Ru and Mo/Si coatings exposed to the highest dose and fluence level show a few per cent drop in their EUV reflectivity, which is explained by EUV-induced oxidation of the surface.",
keywords = "UT-Hybrid-D, EUV optics, Thin Films, FELs, Free-electron laser induced damage, Free-Electron laser induced damage, thin films",
author = "Makhotkin, {Igor A.} and Ryszard Sobierajski and Jaromir Chalupsky and Kai Tiedtke and {de Vries}, Gosse and Michael St{\"o}rmer and Frank Scholze and Frank Siewert and {van de Kruijs}, {Robbert W.E.} and Igor Milov and Eric Louis and Iwanna Jacyna and Marek Jurek and Dorota Klinger and Laurent Nittler and Yevgen Syryanyy and Libor Juha and Věra H{\'a}jkov{\'a} and Vojtěch Vozda and Tom{\'a}š Burian and Karel Saksl and Bart Faatz and Barbara Keitel and Elke Plonjes and Siegfried Schreiber and Sven Toleikis and Rolf Loch and Martin Hermann and Sebastian Strobel and Nienhuys, {Han Kwang} and Grzegorz Gwalt and Tobias Mey and Hartmut Enkisch",
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year = "2018",
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language = "English",
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Makhotkin, IA, Sobierajski, R, Chalupsky, J, Tiedtke, K, de Vries, G, Störmer, M, Scholze, F, Siewert, F, van de Kruijs, RWE, Milov, I, Louis, E, Jacyna, I, Jurek, M, Klinger, D, Nittler, L, Syryanyy, Y, Juha, L, Hájková, V, Vozda, V, Burian, T, Saksl, K, Faatz, B, Keitel, B, Plonjes, E, Schreiber, S, Toleikis, S, Loch, R, Hermann, M, Strobel, S, Nienhuys, HK, Gwalt, G, Mey, T & Enkisch, H 2018, 'Experimental study of EUV mirror radiation damage resistance under long-term free-electron laser exposures below the single-shot damage threshold' Journal of synchrotron radiation, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 77-84. https://doi.org/10.1107/S1600577517017362

Experimental study of EUV mirror radiation damage resistance under long-term free-electron laser exposures below the single-shot damage threshold. / Makhotkin, Igor A.; Sobierajski, Ryszard; Chalupsky, Jaromir; Tiedtke, Kai; de Vries, Gosse; Störmer, Michael; Scholze, Frank; Siewert, Frank; van de Kruijs, Robbert W.E.; Milov, Igor ; Louis, Eric ; Jacyna, Iwanna; Jurek, Marek; Klinger, Dorota; Nittler, Laurent; Syryanyy, Yevgen; Juha, Libor; Hájková, Věra; Vozda, Vojtěch; Burian, Tomáš; Saksl, Karel; Faatz, Bart; Keitel, Barbara; Plonjes, Elke; Schreiber, Siegfried; Toleikis, Sven; Loch, Rolf; Hermann, Martin; Strobel, Sebastian; Nienhuys, Han Kwang; Gwalt, Grzegorz; Mey, Tobias; Enkisch, Hartmut.

In: Journal of synchrotron radiation, Vol. 25, No. 1, 01.2018, p. 77-84.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Experimental study of EUV mirror radiation damage resistance under long-term free-electron laser exposures below the single-shot damage threshold

AU - Makhotkin, Igor A.

AU - Sobierajski, Ryszard

AU - Chalupsky, Jaromir

AU - Tiedtke, Kai

AU - de Vries, Gosse

AU - Störmer, Michael

AU - Scholze, Frank

AU - Siewert, Frank

AU - van de Kruijs, Robbert W.E.

AU - Milov, Igor

AU - Louis, Eric

AU - Jacyna, Iwanna

AU - Jurek, Marek

AU - Klinger, Dorota

AU - Nittler, Laurent

AU - Syryanyy, Yevgen

AU - Juha, Libor

AU - Hájková, Věra

AU - Vozda, Vojtěch

AU - Burian, Tomáš

AU - Saksl, Karel

AU - Faatz, Bart

AU - Keitel, Barbara

AU - Plonjes, Elke

AU - Schreiber, Siegfried

AU - Toleikis, Sven

AU - Loch, Rolf

AU - Hermann, Martin

AU - Strobel, Sebastian

AU - Nienhuys, Han Kwang

AU - Gwalt, Grzegorz

AU - Mey, Tobias

AU - Enkisch, Hartmut

N1 - Wiley deal

PY - 2018/1

Y1 - 2018/1

N2 - The durability of grazing- and normal-incidence optical coatings has been experimentally assessed under free-electron laser irradiation at various numbers of pulses up to 16 million shots and various fluence levels below 10% of the single-shot damage threshold. The experiment was performed at FLASH, the Free-electron LASer in Hamburg, using 13.5 nm extreme UV (EUV) radiation with 100 fs pulse duration. Polycrystalline ruthenium and amorphous carbon 50 nm thin films on silicon substrates were tested at total external reflection angles of 20° and 10° grazing incidence, respectively. Mo/Si periodical multilayer structures were tested in the Bragg reflection condition at 16° off-normal angle of incidence. The exposed areas were analysed post-mortem using differential contrast visible light microscopy, EUV reflectivity mapping and scanning X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The analysis revealed that Ru and Mo/Si coatings exposed to the highest dose and fluence level show a few per cent drop in their EUV reflectivity, which is explained by EUV-induced oxidation of the surface.

AB - The durability of grazing- and normal-incidence optical coatings has been experimentally assessed under free-electron laser irradiation at various numbers of pulses up to 16 million shots and various fluence levels below 10% of the single-shot damage threshold. The experiment was performed at FLASH, the Free-electron LASer in Hamburg, using 13.5 nm extreme UV (EUV) radiation with 100 fs pulse duration. Polycrystalline ruthenium and amorphous carbon 50 nm thin films on silicon substrates were tested at total external reflection angles of 20° and 10° grazing incidence, respectively. Mo/Si periodical multilayer structures were tested in the Bragg reflection condition at 16° off-normal angle of incidence. The exposed areas were analysed post-mortem using differential contrast visible light microscopy, EUV reflectivity mapping and scanning X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The analysis revealed that Ru and Mo/Si coatings exposed to the highest dose and fluence level show a few per cent drop in their EUV reflectivity, which is explained by EUV-induced oxidation of the surface.

KW - UT-Hybrid-D

KW - EUV optics

KW - Thin Films

KW - FELs

KW - Free-electron laser induced damage

KW - Free-Electron laser induced damage

KW - thin films

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85038971075&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1107/S1600577517017362

DO - 10.1107/S1600577517017362

M3 - Article

VL - 25

SP - 77

EP - 84

JO - Journal of synchrotron radiation

JF - Journal of synchrotron radiation

SN - 0909-0495

IS - 1

ER -