Explore the Tribological Effects of Two N-Containing Functional Groups on O/W Emulsion

Yinglei Wu*, Emile van der Heide, Zhongyi He, Erik de Vries

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Two water-soluble N-containing additives without sulfur and phosphorus, hexanamide with tetraethylenepentamine (EEHA) and benzotriazole amide with diethylenetriamine (BTAA), were synthesized and used as additives in the oil-in-water emulsion to investigate the effect of amino and benzotriazole ring on the tribological properties of the emulsion. The results showed that EEHA/BTAA exhibited wear resistance under all tested conditions. This may be attributed to the basic amino-functional groups in the additives which reduce the corrosive wear of the base emulsion. BTAA-emulsion showed the best friction-reducing and anti-wear performance under the 3 N loading condition, which may be attributed to its benzotriazole ring, which cannot be easily decomposed and could form self-assembled layers through π–π stacking. This π–π stacking may effectively compensate for the low chemical reactivity of the benzotriazole ring, and serve as a better protective film to exert tribological properties.

Original languageEnglish
Article number52
JournalTribology letters
Issue number2
Early online date16 Apr 2022
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022


  • N-containing additives
  • Self-assembled adsorption film
  • Tribochemical mechanism
  • π–π stacking
  • 22/2 OA procedure


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