Exploring 3D Cadastres in India: Evaluating the Potential for Land Planning, Development and Management in Delhi

Tarun Ghawana, R.M. Bennett, J.A. Zevenbergen, P. Khandelwal, S. Rahman

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperpeer-review


Urbanization and the trend towards complex infrastructure development has challenged the traditional two dimensional cadastral representations used in conventional land administration. Three dimensional representations, using three dimensional geometric primitives, are argued to serve as the future basis upon which to define rights, restrictions and responsibilities more accurately in these environments. The challenge manifests itself in Delhi, the metro and capital city of India, where horizontal expansion via new settlements in peri-urban areas, and vertical expansion by densification of city infrastructure are witnessed. The need to manage this increasingly 3D infrastructure environment presents a great challenge for both the Delhi Development Authority, the primary agency responsible for land planning and development, and the Municipal Corporation in Delhi, responsible for the maintenance of a large part of the city. This paper explores the current status of three dimensional representations in land related planning, development and management works in Delhi. To achieve this purpose, the outcomes of several research activities are consolidated. Underpinning the work was an analytical framework, informed by international works, enabling assessment of the existing form, function, and implementation of three dimensional cadastre. A questionnaire of employees from within the focus organizations was conducted with random sampling used to identify participants. The questionnaire enabled participants to outline current practices and understandings regarding three dimensional representations, potential benefits, organizational capacity and available technologies. In parallel, qualitative analysis was performed in the form of a literature review on the potential application of conceptual models related to land administration (LADM), data models about city infrastructure representation (CityGML) and building level information (BIM) etc. in context of Delhi as a case study. Based on the results, itis concluded that current practices related to 3D representation are immature and not adequate for capturing the future vertical growth of Delhi. This could lead to legal and physical boundary inconsistencies, irregularities, and dispute cases. However, adopting the international standard approaches, the agencies have the potential to enhance and support processes in the respective organizations. To realize this potential, internal and external factors related to policy, institutional setups, technical and financial arrangements need to be calibrated. It is recommended to initially focus on raising awareness for the widespread adoption of 3D representations in such organizations in Delhi.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages19
Publication statusPublished - 2018
Event6th International FIG Workshop on 3D Cadastres 2018 - Delft, Netherlands
Duration: 2 Oct 20184 Oct 2018
Conference number: 6


Conference6th International FIG Workshop on 3D Cadastres 2018
Abbreviated title3D Cadastres 2018
Internet address




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