During the past decades, there have been major advances in the field of biomaterials, thereby generating a vast variety of materials for a broad range of tissue engineering and regeneration applications. Although gene expression profiling has been used occasionally in biomaterial research, its usefulness for understanding cell-biomaterial interactions should be further explored for it to fulfill its promise as a tool to assess and improve material properties. Here, the transcriptional landscape induced by 23 materials is explored with a variety of properties within the scope of bone regeneration. An osteoblast cell line is used to identify the gene expression profiles that can be adopted in response to biophysical and chemical cues. It is shown that TGF-β and WNT signaling may be involved in the cellular response to osteoinductive materials along with differential cell adhesion kinetics via attenuated FAK signaling. The previously reported effect of calcium and phosphate on BMP2 and TGF-β signaling is confirmed and the biological effect of the addition of nanohydroxyapatite in poly (d,l-lactic acid) polymer particles is studied. Together with future applications, this approach will help researchers understand cellular responses in relation to material properties, which will promote the development of more effective biomaterials for applications in tissue regeneration.
- Bone regeneration
- Cell-biomaterial interactions
- Transcriptional profiling