Extracellular vesicles as a drug delivery system: A systematic review of preclinical studies

Pol Escudé Martinez de Castilla, Lingjun Tong, Chenyuan Huang, Alexandros Marios Sofias, Giorgia Pastorin, Xiaoyuan Chen, Gert Storm, Raymond M. Schiffelers*, Jiong-Wei Wang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

94 Citations (Scopus)
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During the past decades, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as an attractive drug delivery system. Here, we assess their pre-clinical applications, in the form of a systematic review. For each study published in the past decade, disease models, animal species, EV donor cell types, active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), EV surface modifications, API loading methods, EV size and charge, estimation of EV purity, presence of biodistribution studies and administration routes were quantitatively analyzed in a defined and reproducible way. We have interpreted the trends we observe over the past decade, to define the niches where to apply EVs for drug delivery in the future and to provide a basis for regulatory guidelines.

Original languageEnglish
Article number113801
JournalAdvanced drug delivery reviews
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2021


  • Clinical trial
  • Drug delivery
  • Extracellular vesicles
  • Liposomes
  • Preclinical animal models
  • Systematic review


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