The extreme ultraviolet (EUV, λ = 13.5 nm) induced dissociation of water layers on Ru(0001) was investigated. We irradiated amorphous and crystalline water layers on a Ru crystal with EUV light, and measured the surface coverage of remaining water and oxygen as a function of radiation dose by temperature programmed desorption (TPD). The main reaction products are OH and H with a fraction of oxygen from fully dissociated water. TPD spectra from a series of exposures reveal that EUV promotes formation of the partially dissociated water overlayer on Ru. Furthermore, loss of water due to desorption and dissociation is also observed. The water loss cross sections for amorphous and crystalline water are measured at 9 ± 2 × 10− 19 cm2 and 5 ± 1 × 10− 19 cm2, respectively. Comparison between the two cross sections suggests that crystalline water is more stable against EUV induced desorption/dissociation. The dissociation products can oxidize the Ru surface. For this early stage of oxidation, we measured a smaller (compared to water loss) cross section at 2 × 10− 20 cm2, which is 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the photon absorption cross section (at 92 eV) of gas phase water. The secondary electron (SE) contributions to the cross sections are also estimated. From our estimation, SE only forms a small part (20–25%) of the observed photon cross section.