Extreme UV secondary electron yield measurements of Ru, Sn, and Hf oxide thin films

Jacobus M. Sturm*, Feng Liu, Erik Darlatt, Michael Kolbe, Antonius A.I. Aarnink, Christopher J. Lee, Fred Bijkerk

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Background: The secondary electron yield (SEY) of materials is important for topics as nanoparticle photoresists and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optics contamination.Aim: Experimentally measure SEY and secondary electron energy distributions for Ru, Sn, and Hf oxide.Approach: The SEY and energy distribution resulting from 65 to 112 eV EUV radiation are measured for thin-film oxides or films with native oxide.Results: The total SEY can be explained by EUV absorption in the topmost nanometer of (native) oxide of the investigated materials.Conclusions: Although the relative SEY of Ru and Sn is well-explained by the difference in EUV absorption properties, the SEY of HfO2 is almost a factor 2 higher than expected. Based on the energy distribution of secondary electrons, this may be related to a lower barrier for secondary electron emission.

Original languageEnglish
Article number033501
JournalJournal of Micro/ Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2019


  • extreme ultraviolet
  • nanoparticle photoresist
  • secondary electron yield

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