Eye Gaze Patterns in Conversations: There is More to Conversational Agents Than Meets the Eyes

R.P.H. Vertegaal, R. Slagter, Gerrit C. van der Veer, Antinus Nijholt

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionProfessional

    244 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    In multi-agent, multi-user environments, users as well as agents should have a means of establishing who is talking to whom. In this paper, we present an experiment aimed at evaluating whether gaze directional cues of users could be used for this purpose. Using an eye tracker, we measured subject gaze at the faces of conversational partners during four-person conversations. Results indicate that when someone is listening or speaking to individuals, there is indeed a high probability that the person looked at is the person listened (p=88%) or spoken to (p=77%). We conclude that gaze is an excellent predictor of conversational attention in multiparty conversations. As such, it may form a reliable source of input for conversational systems that need to establish whom the user is speaking or listening to. We implemented our findings in FRED, a multi-agent conversational system that uses eye input to gauge which agent the user is listening or speaking to.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationCHI 2001: Anyone, Anywhere
    Subtitle of host publicationCHI 2001 conference proceedings
    EditorsJ. Jacko, A. Sears, M. Beaudouin-Lafon, R.J.K. Jacob
    Place of PublicationNew York, NY
    PublisherACM Press
    Pages301-308
    Number of pages8
    ISBN (Print)9781581133271
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 31 Mar 2001
    Event2001 SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI 2001: Anyone, Anywhere - Seattle, United States
    Duration: 31 Mar 20015 Apr 2001

    Conference

    Conference2001 SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI 2001
    Abbreviated titleCHI
    CountryUnited States
    CitySeattle
    Period31/03/015/04/01

    Keywords

    • HMI-MI: MULTIMODAL INTERACTIONS

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