The Lemaitre's continuum damage model is well known in the field of damage mechanics. The anisotropic damage model given by Lemaitre is relatively simple, applicable to nonproportional loads and uses only four damage parameters. The hypothesis of strain equivalence is used to map the effective stress to the nominal stress. Both the isotropic and anisotropic damage models from Lemaitre are implemented in an in-house implicit finite element code. The damage model is coupled with an elasto-plastic material model using anisotropic plasticity (Hill-48 yield criterion) and strain-rate dependent isotropic hardening. The Lemaitre continuum damage model is based on the small strain assumption; therefore, the model is implemented in an incremental co-rotational framework to make it applicable for large strains. The damage dissipation potential was slightly adapted to incorporate a different damage evolution behavior under compression and tension. A tensile test and a low-cycle fatigue test were used to determine the damage parameters. The damage evolution was modified to incorporate strain rate sensitivity by making two of the damage parameters a function of strain rate. The model is applied to predict failure in a cross-die deep drawing process, which is well known for having a wide variety of strains and strain path changes. The failure predictions obtained from the anisotropic damage models are in good agreement with the experimental results, whereas the predictions obtained from the isotropic damage model are slightly conservative. The anisotropic damage model predicts the crack direction more accurately compared to the predictions based on principal stress directions using the isotropic damage model. The set of damage parameters, determined in a uniaxial condition, gives a good failure prediction under other triaxiality conditions.
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Niazi, M. S., Wisselink, H. H., Meinders, V. T., & Huetink, H. (2012). Failure Predictions for DP Steel Cross-die Test Using Anisotropic Damage. International journal of damage mechanics, 21(5), 713-754. https://doi.org/10.1177/1056789511407646