Fast & Energy Efficient Start-Up of Crystal Oscillators by Self-Timed Energy Injection

Joeri B. Lechevallier*, Ronan A.R. van der Zee, Bram Nauta

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    18 Citations (Scopus)
    707 Downloads (Pure)


    Crystal oscillators take a long time and, more importantly, a significant amount of energy to start-up. This article presents a self-timed energy injection technique to quickly start-up a crystal oscillator, for very low energy consumption. This is achieved without a power-hungry oscillator to provide the injection signal. The design considerations are discussed, and a prototype crystal oscillator using the proposed technique is integrated into a 22-nm fully depleted silicon-on-insulator (FD-SOI) technology. Connected to a 50-MHz crystal, the manufactured IC achieves a start-up time of 6 μs, for an energy consumption of just 3.7 nJ.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number8816671
    Pages (from-to)3107-3117
    Number of pages11
    JournalIEEE journal of solid-state circuits
    Issue number11
    Early online date27 Aug 2019
    Publication statusPublished - Nov 2019


    • crystal oscillaters
    • duty cycling
    • energy injection
    • Internet of Things (IoT)
    • Low power
    • start-up energy
    • start-up time


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