Purpose: Cyst infections are a common complication in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Diagnosing these infections often remains challenging. Conventional imaging techniques such as ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), and standard magnetic resonance imaging have several drawbacks and disadvantages. The purpose of this pictorial essay was to illustrate and discuss the potential value of 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/CT in diagnosing cyst infection in ADPKD. Methods: Exemplary (ADPKD) patients who underwent FDG-PET/CT as part of their routine clinical work-up in our institution are presented to show the potential value and drawbacks of this imaging technique in diagnosing cyst infection. In addition, the current literature and guidelines on this topic were reviewed. Results: FDG-PET/CT appears to be a sensitive method for the detection of cyst infection, but it is not infallible. Furthermore, FDG uptake in cysts and cyst-like lesions is not specific and clinical and radiological correlations are essential to improve specificity and minimize the risk of falsely discarding other diseases, in particular malignancy. Conclusion: FDG-PET/CT seems to be a useful imaging modality to diagnose cyst infections in ADPKD. However, its exact diagnostic value has not been established yet due to the lack of a reliable reference standard in previous studies on this topic.