Feedback digitalization preferences in online and hybrid classroom: Experiences from lockdown and implications for post-pandemic education

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Purpose: This research aims to explore digital feedback needs/preferences in online education during lockdown and the implications for post-pandemic education. Design/methodology/approach: An empirical study approach was used to explore feedback needs and experiences from educational institutions in the Netherlands and Germany (N = 247) using a survey method. Findings: The results showed that instruments supporting features for effortless interactivity are among the highly preferred options for giving/receiving feedback in online/hybrid classrooms, which are in addition also opted for post-pandemic education. The analysis also showed that, when communicating feedback digitally, more inclusive formats are preferred, e.g. informing learners about how they perform compared to peers. The increased need for comparative performance-oriented feedback, however, may affect students' goal orientations. In general, the results of this study suggest that while interactivity features of online instruments are key to ensuring social presence when using digital forms of feedback, balancing online with offline approaches should be recommended. Originality/value: This research contributes to the gap in the scientific literature on feedback digitalization. Most of the existing research are in the domain of automated feedback generated by various learning environments, while literature on digital feedback in online classrooms, e.g. empirical studies on preferences for typology, formats and communication channels for digital feedback, to the best of the authors’ knowledge is largely lacking. The findings and recommendations of this study extend their relevance to post-pandemic education for which hybrid classroom is opted among the highly preferred formats by survey respondents.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Research in Innovative Teaching & Learning
Early online date3 Oct 2023
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print/First online - 3 Oct 2023


  • Digital feedback
  • Feedback communication instruments
  • Feedback digitization
  • Online feedback
  • Use of technology for feedback
  • UT-Hybrid-D


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