Aim This contribution develops a conceptual framework that illustrates how feedback on quality measurements to nursing teams can be related to nurses’ well-being and quality improvement. Background It is assumed that providing nursing teams with feedback on quality measurements will lead to quality improvement. Research does not fully support this assumption. Additionally, previous empirical work shows that feedback on quality measurements may have alienating and demotivating effects on nurses. Evaluation This article uniquely integrates scholarly literature on feedback provision and strategic human resource management. Key issue The relationship between feedback provision, nurses’ well-being and quality improvement remains unclear from research until now. Conclusion Three perspectives are discussed that illustrate that feedback provision can result in quality improvement at the expense of or for the benefit of nurses’ well-being. To better understand these contradictory effects, research should examine nurses’ perceptions of feedback as mediating variables, while incorporating context factors as moderating variables. Implications for nursing management Nursing management can use feedback on quality measurements to nursing teams, as a tool for enhanced quality and as a motivating tool. However, nurses’ perceptions and contextual variables are important for the actual success of feedback.