FFF print defect characterization through in-situ electrical resistance monitoring

Heime Jonkers*, Alexander Dijkshoorn, Stefano Stramigioli, Gijs Krijnen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Fused filament fabrication is a popular fabrication technique. Currently there is a need for in-situ monitoring modalities to gather real-time information on prints, both for quality control and closed-loop control. Despite current advancements, effective and affordable in-situ monitoring techniques for non-destructive defect detection of voids and bonding quality are still limited. This work demonstrates in-situ monitoring of fused filament fabrication through electrical resistance measurements as an alternative to thermal and optical methods. A new, easy-to-implement setup is demonstrated which measures the electrical resistance of a conductively doped filament between the nozzle and single or multi-electrodes on the bed. Defects can be located in an unprecedented way with the use of encoded axes in combination with the observed resistance variations throughout the part. A model of the anisotropic electrical conduction is used to interpret the measurements, which matches well with the data. Warping, inter-layer adhesion, under-extrusion and overhang sagging print defects can be observed in the measurements of parts with a complex geometry, which would be difficult to measure otherwise. Altogether in-situ electrical resistance monitoring offers a tool for optimising prints by online studying the influence of the print parameters for quality assessment and it opens up possibilities for closed-loop control.
Original languageEnglish
Article number11906
Number of pages11
JournalScientific reports
Early online date24 May 2024
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print/First online - 24 May 2024


  • FFF
  • monitoring
  • FDM
  • warping
  • inter-layer adhesion
  • fusion
  • Extrusion-based 3D printing
  • print defects


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