Field emisssion at nanometer distances for high-resolution positioning

A.J. le Fèbre, L. Abelmann, J.C. Lodder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)
34 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

The dependence of the field emission effect on distance is applied for displacement sensing and high-resolution positioning. Silicon atomic force microscopy probes were used as a field emission source by applying voltages up to 400 V between this probe and a counter-electrode sample consisting of TiW sputtered on a silicon wafer. From current-voltage characteristics measured for distances varying from 50 to 950 nm, values for the field enhancement factor were determined which show a dependence on the electrode separation. This dependence can be correctly described by a model the authors developed using finite-element calculations and is determined by the emitter geometry and tip radius. Feedback to the probe position was used to maintain a constant current to apply this distance dependence for positioning. When increasing the applied voltage from 5 to 40 V for a constant current of 3 nA, the probe position is raised similar to 90 nm. The nonlinear sensitivity of this positioning method is determined by the varying field enhancement and can be fitted by the same calculated model. Using feedback, the field emitter can be positioned with high lateral resolution and scanned over a conducting surface. Increasing the bias voltage from 3 to 50 V results in an increase in the emitter-sample distance and a decrease in lateral resolution. Damage to the scanned surface has to be prevented by using a current-limiting resistor and by annealing the probe and sample under ultra high vacuum conditions before use. (C) 2008 American Vacuum Society.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)724-729
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of vacuum science and technology. B: Microelectronics and nanometer structures
Volume26
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2008

Fingerprint

positioning
probes
high resolution
emitters
electric potential
Field emission
field emission
Feedback
Electrodes
electrodes
augmentation
Ultrahigh vacuum
Electric potential
silicon
Silicon
Current voltage characteristics
Bias voltage
Silicon wafers
resistors
Resistors

Keywords

  • TST-SMI: Formerly in EWI-SMI
  • TSTNE-Probe-STM: Scanning Tunneling Microscope
  • TST-uSPAM: micro Scanning Probe Array Memory

Cite this

@article{1f5f4c2ba916450f989adeffe501bc5f,
title = "Field emisssion at nanometer distances for high-resolution positioning",
abstract = "The dependence of the field emission effect on distance is applied for displacement sensing and high-resolution positioning. Silicon atomic force microscopy probes were used as a field emission source by applying voltages up to 400 V between this probe and a counter-electrode sample consisting of TiW sputtered on a silicon wafer. From current-voltage characteristics measured for distances varying from 50 to 950 nm, values for the field enhancement factor were determined which show a dependence on the electrode separation. This dependence can be correctly described by a model the authors developed using finite-element calculations and is determined by the emitter geometry and tip radius. Feedback to the probe position was used to maintain a constant current to apply this distance dependence for positioning. When increasing the applied voltage from 5 to 40 V for a constant current of 3 nA, the probe position is raised similar to 90 nm. The nonlinear sensitivity of this positioning method is determined by the varying field enhancement and can be fitted by the same calculated model. Using feedback, the field emitter can be positioned with high lateral resolution and scanned over a conducting surface. Increasing the bias voltage from 3 to 50 V results in an increase in the emitter-sample distance and a decrease in lateral resolution. Damage to the scanned surface has to be prevented by using a current-limiting resistor and by annealing the probe and sample under ultra high vacuum conditions before use. (C) 2008 American Vacuum Society.",
keywords = "TST-SMI: Formerly in EWI-SMI, TSTNE-Probe-STM: Scanning Tunneling Microscope, TST-uSPAM: micro Scanning Probe Array Memory",
author = "{le F{\`e}bre}, A.J. and L. Abelmann and J.C. Lodder",
year = "2008",
month = "4",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1116/1.2894898",
language = "English",
volume = "26",
pages = "724--729",
journal = "Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B:Nanotechnology and Microelectronics",
issn = "2166-2746",
publisher = "AVS Science and Technology Society",
number = "2",

}

Field emisssion at nanometer distances for high-resolution positioning. / le Fèbre, A.J.; Abelmann, L.; Lodder, J.C.

In: Journal of vacuum science and technology. B: Microelectronics and nanometer structures, Vol. 26, No. 2, 01.04.2008, p. 724-729.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Field emisssion at nanometer distances for high-resolution positioning

AU - le Fèbre, A.J.

AU - Abelmann, L.

AU - Lodder, J.C.

PY - 2008/4/1

Y1 - 2008/4/1

N2 - The dependence of the field emission effect on distance is applied for displacement sensing and high-resolution positioning. Silicon atomic force microscopy probes were used as a field emission source by applying voltages up to 400 V between this probe and a counter-electrode sample consisting of TiW sputtered on a silicon wafer. From current-voltage characteristics measured for distances varying from 50 to 950 nm, values for the field enhancement factor were determined which show a dependence on the electrode separation. This dependence can be correctly described by a model the authors developed using finite-element calculations and is determined by the emitter geometry and tip radius. Feedback to the probe position was used to maintain a constant current to apply this distance dependence for positioning. When increasing the applied voltage from 5 to 40 V for a constant current of 3 nA, the probe position is raised similar to 90 nm. The nonlinear sensitivity of this positioning method is determined by the varying field enhancement and can be fitted by the same calculated model. Using feedback, the field emitter can be positioned with high lateral resolution and scanned over a conducting surface. Increasing the bias voltage from 3 to 50 V results in an increase in the emitter-sample distance and a decrease in lateral resolution. Damage to the scanned surface has to be prevented by using a current-limiting resistor and by annealing the probe and sample under ultra high vacuum conditions before use. (C) 2008 American Vacuum Society.

AB - The dependence of the field emission effect on distance is applied for displacement sensing and high-resolution positioning. Silicon atomic force microscopy probes were used as a field emission source by applying voltages up to 400 V between this probe and a counter-electrode sample consisting of TiW sputtered on a silicon wafer. From current-voltage characteristics measured for distances varying from 50 to 950 nm, values for the field enhancement factor were determined which show a dependence on the electrode separation. This dependence can be correctly described by a model the authors developed using finite-element calculations and is determined by the emitter geometry and tip radius. Feedback to the probe position was used to maintain a constant current to apply this distance dependence for positioning. When increasing the applied voltage from 5 to 40 V for a constant current of 3 nA, the probe position is raised similar to 90 nm. The nonlinear sensitivity of this positioning method is determined by the varying field enhancement and can be fitted by the same calculated model. Using feedback, the field emitter can be positioned with high lateral resolution and scanned over a conducting surface. Increasing the bias voltage from 3 to 50 V results in an increase in the emitter-sample distance and a decrease in lateral resolution. Damage to the scanned surface has to be prevented by using a current-limiting resistor and by annealing the probe and sample under ultra high vacuum conditions before use. (C) 2008 American Vacuum Society.

KW - TST-SMI: Formerly in EWI-SMI

KW - TSTNE-Probe-STM: Scanning Tunneling Microscope

KW - TST-uSPAM: micro Scanning Probe Array Memory

U2 - 10.1116/1.2894898

DO - 10.1116/1.2894898

M3 - Article

VL - 26

SP - 724

EP - 729

JO - Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B:Nanotechnology and Microelectronics

JF - Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B:Nanotechnology and Microelectronics

SN - 2166-2746

IS - 2

ER -