Figures of merit of avalanche-mode silicon LEDS

Raymond Josephus Engelbart Hueting, Satadal Dutta, Vishal Agarwal, Anne J. Annema

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

The silicon avalanche-mode light-emitting diode (AMLED) opens a route for on-chip opto-electronic applications in standard CMOS, both due to its relatively broad spectral overlap with the spectral responsivity of silicon photodiodes and due to its high speed capability. This work presents closed form models for the key figures of merit (FOMs) of AMLEDs, namely, current (or power) density, cut-off frequency, radiative efficiency, and specifically for optical data communication energy cost per photon. Their derivations are based on one-dimensional analyses of an abrupt single-sided (p+n or n+p) junction and of a p-i-n diode. TCAD simulations for optimized device structures, including the recently reported superjunction (SJ) LED, were performed to validate the model. Measurements on single-sided abrupt junctions and SJ diodes are shown to validate some of the modelled trends. The results show that a p-i-n or an SJ diode is favorable to a conventional single-sided junction diode for the AMLED design. In addition, as confirmed for conventional AMLEDs by earlier reports, the results indicate that for a yet higher efficiency the carrier supply should be increased. For this a combination of a separate minority carrier injector and SJLED is proposed, referred to as the injection-avalanche CMOS SJLED. However, more experimental optical data (e.g., absolute photon flux) are needed for a more accurate model validation.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationFifth Conference on Sensors, MEMS, and Electro-Optic Systems, 2018, Skuluza, South Africa
PublisherSPIE International
Volume11043
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 8 Oct 2018
EventFifth Conference on Sensors, MEMS, and Electro-Optic Systems 2018 - Skukuza, South Africa
Duration: 8 Oct 201810 Oct 2018
Conference number: 5
https://www.regonline.com/builder/site/default.aspx?EventID=2019712

Conference

ConferenceFifth Conference on Sensors, MEMS, and Electro-Optic Systems 2018
Abbreviated titleSMEOS 2018
CountrySouth Africa
CitySkukuza
Period8/10/1810/10/18
Internet address

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figure of merit
avalanches
light emitting diodes
CMOS
silicon
diodes
junction diodes
p-i-n diodes
photons
minority carriers
p-n junctions
injectors
photodiodes
radiant flux density
cut-off
derivation
communication
chips
routes
high speed

Cite this

Hueting, R. J. E., Dutta, S., Agarwal, V., & Annema, A. J. (2018). Figures of merit of avalanche-mode silicon LEDS. In Fifth Conference on Sensors, MEMS, and Electro-Optic Systems, 2018, Skuluza, South Africa (Vol. 11043). SPIE International. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2501315
Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart ; Dutta, Satadal ; Agarwal, Vishal ; Annema, Anne J. / Figures of merit of avalanche-mode silicon LEDS. Fifth Conference on Sensors, MEMS, and Electro-Optic Systems, 2018, Skuluza, South Africa. Vol. 11043 SPIE International, 2018.
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abstract = "The silicon avalanche-mode light-emitting diode (AMLED) opens a route for on-chip opto-electronic applications in standard CMOS, both due to its relatively broad spectral overlap with the spectral responsivity of silicon photodiodes and due to its high speed capability. This work presents closed form models for the key figures of merit (FOMs) of AMLEDs, namely, current (or power) density, cut-off frequency, radiative efficiency, and specifically for optical data communication energy cost per photon. Their derivations are based on one-dimensional analyses of an abrupt single-sided (p+n or n+p) junction and of a p-i-n diode. TCAD simulations for optimized device structures, including the recently reported superjunction (SJ) LED, were performed to validate the model. Measurements on single-sided abrupt junctions and SJ diodes are shown to validate some of the modelled trends. The results show that a p-i-n or an SJ diode is favorable to a conventional single-sided junction diode for the AMLED design. In addition, as confirmed for conventional AMLEDs by earlier reports, the results indicate that for a yet higher efficiency the carrier supply should be increased. For this a combination of a separate minority carrier injector and SJLED is proposed, referred to as the injection-avalanche CMOS SJLED. However, more experimental optical data (e.g., absolute photon flux) are needed for a more accurate model validation.",
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Hueting, RJE, Dutta, S, Agarwal, V & Annema, AJ 2018, Figures of merit of avalanche-mode silicon LEDS. in Fifth Conference on Sensors, MEMS, and Electro-Optic Systems, 2018, Skuluza, South Africa. vol. 11043, SPIE International, Fifth Conference on Sensors, MEMS, and Electro-Optic Systems 2018, Skukuza, South Africa, 8/10/18. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2501315

Figures of merit of avalanche-mode silicon LEDS. / Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart; Dutta, Satadal ; Agarwal, Vishal ; Annema, Anne J.

Fifth Conference on Sensors, MEMS, and Electro-Optic Systems, 2018, Skuluza, South Africa. Vol. 11043 SPIE International, 2018.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

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AU - Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart

AU - Dutta, Satadal

AU - Agarwal, Vishal

AU - Annema, Anne J.

PY - 2018/10/8

Y1 - 2018/10/8

N2 - The silicon avalanche-mode light-emitting diode (AMLED) opens a route for on-chip opto-electronic applications in standard CMOS, both due to its relatively broad spectral overlap with the spectral responsivity of silicon photodiodes and due to its high speed capability. This work presents closed form models for the key figures of merit (FOMs) of AMLEDs, namely, current (or power) density, cut-off frequency, radiative efficiency, and specifically for optical data communication energy cost per photon. Their derivations are based on one-dimensional analyses of an abrupt single-sided (p+n or n+p) junction and of a p-i-n diode. TCAD simulations for optimized device structures, including the recently reported superjunction (SJ) LED, were performed to validate the model. Measurements on single-sided abrupt junctions and SJ diodes are shown to validate some of the modelled trends. The results show that a p-i-n or an SJ diode is favorable to a conventional single-sided junction diode for the AMLED design. In addition, as confirmed for conventional AMLEDs by earlier reports, the results indicate that for a yet higher efficiency the carrier supply should be increased. For this a combination of a separate minority carrier injector and SJLED is proposed, referred to as the injection-avalanche CMOS SJLED. However, more experimental optical data (e.g., absolute photon flux) are needed for a more accurate model validation.

AB - The silicon avalanche-mode light-emitting diode (AMLED) opens a route for on-chip opto-electronic applications in standard CMOS, both due to its relatively broad spectral overlap with the spectral responsivity of silicon photodiodes and due to its high speed capability. This work presents closed form models for the key figures of merit (FOMs) of AMLEDs, namely, current (or power) density, cut-off frequency, radiative efficiency, and specifically for optical data communication energy cost per photon. Their derivations are based on one-dimensional analyses of an abrupt single-sided (p+n or n+p) junction and of a p-i-n diode. TCAD simulations for optimized device structures, including the recently reported superjunction (SJ) LED, were performed to validate the model. Measurements on single-sided abrupt junctions and SJ diodes are shown to validate some of the modelled trends. The results show that a p-i-n or an SJ diode is favorable to a conventional single-sided junction diode for the AMLED design. In addition, as confirmed for conventional AMLEDs by earlier reports, the results indicate that for a yet higher efficiency the carrier supply should be increased. For this a combination of a separate minority carrier injector and SJLED is proposed, referred to as the injection-avalanche CMOS SJLED. However, more experimental optical data (e.g., absolute photon flux) are needed for a more accurate model validation.

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DO - 10.1117/12.2501315

M3 - Conference contribution

VL - 11043

BT - Fifth Conference on Sensors, MEMS, and Electro-Optic Systems, 2018, Skuluza, South Africa

PB - SPIE International

ER -

Hueting RJE, Dutta S, Agarwal V, Annema AJ. Figures of merit of avalanche-mode silicon LEDS. In Fifth Conference on Sensors, MEMS, and Electro-Optic Systems, 2018, Skuluza, South Africa. Vol. 11043. SPIE International. 2018 https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2501315