Film models for transport phenomena with fog formation: The classical film model

Jos Brouwers, A.K. Chesters

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In the present analysis the classical film model (or film theory) is reviewed and extended. First, on the basis of a thorough analysis, the governing equations of diffusion, energy and momentum of a stagnant film are derived and solved. Subsequently, the well-known correction factors for the effect of suction/injection on mass, heat and momentum transfer are derived. Next, employing global balances of mass, energy and momentum, the film model is applied to channel flow. This application yields a new expression for the pressure drop and hence it is compared extensively with experimental and theoretical results of previous investigators, yielding good agreement. The onset of fog formation in a binary mixture, both in the transferring film and/or in the bulk, is explained graphically with the help of the relation between temperature and vapour mass fraction and the saturation line of the vapour.
Original languageUndefined
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalInternational journal of heat and mass transfer
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1992


  • IR-20661
  • METIS-124271

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