Flexoelectric rotation of polarization in ferroelectric thin films

G. Catalan, A. Lubk, A.H.G. Vlooswijk, E. Snoeck, C. Magen, J.A. Janssens, A. Janssens, G. Rispens, Augustinus J.H.M. Rijnders, David H.A. Blank, B. Noheda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

Strain engineering enables modification of the properties of thin films using the stress from the substrates on which they are grown. Strain may be relaxed, however, and this can also modify the properties thanks to the coupling between strain gradient and polarization known as flexoelectricity. Here we have studied the strain distribution inside epitaxial films of the archetypal ferroelectric PbTiO3, where the mismatch with the substrate is relaxed through the formation of domains (twins). Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy reveal an intricate strain distribution, with gradients in both the vertical and, unexpectedly, the horizontal direction. These gradients generate a horizontal flexoelectricity that forces the spontaneous polarization to rotate away from the normal. Polar rotations are a characteristic of compositionally engineered morphotropic phase boundary ferroelectrics with high piezoelectricity; flexoelectricity provides an alternative route for generating such rotations in standard ferroelectrics using purely physical means.
Original languageUndefined
Pages (from-to)963-967
Number of pages5
JournalNature materials
Volume10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011

Keywords

  • METIS-310540
  • IR-104457

Cite this

Catalan, G., Lubk, A., Vlooswijk, A. H. G., Snoeck, E., Magen, C., Janssens, J. A., ... Noheda, B. (2011). Flexoelectric rotation of polarization in ferroelectric thin films. Nature materials, 10, 963-967. https://doi.org/10.1038/NMAT3141
Catalan, G. ; Lubk, A. ; Vlooswijk, A.H.G. ; Snoeck, E. ; Magen, C. ; Janssens, J.A. ; Janssens, A. ; Rispens, G. ; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M. ; Blank, David H.A. ; Noheda, B. / Flexoelectric rotation of polarization in ferroelectric thin films. In: Nature materials. 2011 ; Vol. 10. pp. 963-967.
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abstract = "Strain engineering enables modification of the properties of thin films using the stress from the substrates on which they are grown. Strain may be relaxed, however, and this can also modify the properties thanks to the coupling between strain gradient and polarization known as flexoelectricity. Here we have studied the strain distribution inside epitaxial films of the archetypal ferroelectric PbTiO3, where the mismatch with the substrate is relaxed through the formation of domains (twins). Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy reveal an intricate strain distribution, with gradients in both the vertical and, unexpectedly, the horizontal direction. These gradients generate a horizontal flexoelectricity that forces the spontaneous polarization to rotate away from the normal. Polar rotations are a characteristic of compositionally engineered morphotropic phase boundary ferroelectrics with high piezoelectricity; flexoelectricity provides an alternative route for generating such rotations in standard ferroelectrics using purely physical means.",
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Catalan, G, Lubk, A, Vlooswijk, AHG, Snoeck, E, Magen, C, Janssens, JA, Janssens, A, Rispens, G, Rijnders, AJHM, Blank, DHA & Noheda, B 2011, 'Flexoelectric rotation of polarization in ferroelectric thin films' Nature materials, vol. 10, pp. 963-967. https://doi.org/10.1038/NMAT3141

Flexoelectric rotation of polarization in ferroelectric thin films. / Catalan, G.; Lubk, A.; Vlooswijk, A.H.G.; Snoeck, E.; Magen, C.; Janssens, J.A.; Janssens, A.; Rispens, G.; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.; Blank, David H.A.; Noheda, B.

In: Nature materials, Vol. 10, 2011, p. 963-967.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Flexoelectric rotation of polarization in ferroelectric thin films

AU - Catalan, G.

AU - Lubk, A.

AU - Vlooswijk, A.H.G.

AU - Snoeck, E.

AU - Magen, C.

AU - Janssens, J.A.

AU - Janssens, A.

AU - Rispens, G.

AU - Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.

AU - Blank, David H.A.

AU - Noheda, B.

PY - 2011

Y1 - 2011

N2 - Strain engineering enables modification of the properties of thin films using the stress from the substrates on which they are grown. Strain may be relaxed, however, and this can also modify the properties thanks to the coupling between strain gradient and polarization known as flexoelectricity. Here we have studied the strain distribution inside epitaxial films of the archetypal ferroelectric PbTiO3, where the mismatch with the substrate is relaxed through the formation of domains (twins). Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy reveal an intricate strain distribution, with gradients in both the vertical and, unexpectedly, the horizontal direction. These gradients generate a horizontal flexoelectricity that forces the spontaneous polarization to rotate away from the normal. Polar rotations are a characteristic of compositionally engineered morphotropic phase boundary ferroelectrics with high piezoelectricity; flexoelectricity provides an alternative route for generating such rotations in standard ferroelectrics using purely physical means.

AB - Strain engineering enables modification of the properties of thin films using the stress from the substrates on which they are grown. Strain may be relaxed, however, and this can also modify the properties thanks to the coupling between strain gradient and polarization known as flexoelectricity. Here we have studied the strain distribution inside epitaxial films of the archetypal ferroelectric PbTiO3, where the mismatch with the substrate is relaxed through the formation of domains (twins). Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy reveal an intricate strain distribution, with gradients in both the vertical and, unexpectedly, the horizontal direction. These gradients generate a horizontal flexoelectricity that forces the spontaneous polarization to rotate away from the normal. Polar rotations are a characteristic of compositionally engineered morphotropic phase boundary ferroelectrics with high piezoelectricity; flexoelectricity provides an alternative route for generating such rotations in standard ferroelectrics using purely physical means.

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Catalan G, Lubk A, Vlooswijk AHG, Snoeck E, Magen C, Janssens JA et al. Flexoelectric rotation of polarization in ferroelectric thin films. Nature materials. 2011;10:963-967. https://doi.org/10.1038/NMAT3141