Flourishing in the now: Initial validation of a present-eudaimonic time perspective scale

Jonte C. Vowinckel*, Gerben J. Westerhof, Ernst T. Bohlmeijer, Jeffrey D. Webster

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


Introduction: A positive focus on the present, the only time zone which we experience directly and permanently, is at least as relevant as perspectives on the past and future in a balanced time perspective and its relation to wellbeing. Yet, few instruments examining a positive present time perspective exist. Two present-directed concepts, mindfulness and flow, that are intrinsically linked to mental wellbeing were analyzed and used to formulate a present-eudaimonic scale that complements the past and future scales of the balanced time perspective scale. The present study addresses the psychometric properties of the present-eudaimonic scale and the modified balanced time perspective scale. Method: 131 participants filled out the present-eudaimonic scale, the balanced time perspective scale, the Zimbardo time perspective inventory, the five facet mindfulness questionnaire – short form, the Swedish flow proneness questionnaire and the mental health continuum – short form. Balanced time perspective was operationalized using the deviation from a balanced time perspective coefficient. Results: The present-eudaimonic scale showed good psychometric properties including internal consistency, factor structure, and convergent validity. The present-eudaimonic scale explained an additional eleven percent of variance in mental health beyond the other time perspective scales. Balanced time perspective as measured with the modified balanced time perspective scale correlated significantly stronger with mental health than balanced time perspective measured with the Zimbardo time perspective inventory. Conclusions: The present-eudaimonic scale fills a gap in the assessment of time perspective and the modified balanced time perspective scale is a promising way to study balanced time perspective.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)203-226
Number of pages24
JournalTime & society
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2017


  • balanced time perspective
  • flow
  • mindfulness
  • present time perspective
  • scale development
  • Time perspective


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