In this paper, the structure and the dynamics of the flow in the left heart ventricle are studied for different pumping efficiencies and mitral valve types (natural, biological and mechanical prosthetic). The problem is investigated by direct numerical simulation of the Navier-Stokes equations, two-way coupled with a structural solver for the ventricle and mitral valve dynamics. The whole solver is preliminarily validated by comparisons with ad hoc experiments. It is found that the system works in a highly synergistic way and the left ventricular flow is heavily affected by the specific type of mitral valve, with effects that are more pronounced for ventricles with reduced pumping efficiency. When the ventricle ejection fraction (ratio of the ejected fluid volume to maximum ventricle volume over the cycle) is within the physiological range (50 %-70 %), regardless of the mitral valve geometry, the mitral jet sweeps the inner ventricle surface up to the apex, thus preventing undesired flow stagnation. In contrast, for pathological ejection fractions (≤40 %), the flow disturbances introduced by the bileaflet mechanical valve reduce the penetration capability of the mitral jet and weaken the recirculation in the ventricular apex. Although in clinical practice the fatality rates in the five-year follow-ups for mechanical and biological mitral valve replacements are essentially the same, a breakdown of the deaths shows that the causes are very different for the two classes of prostheses and the present findings are consistent with the clinical data. This might have important clinical implications for the choice of prosthetic device in patients needing mitral valve replacement.
- Biomedical flows
- Biological fluid dynamics